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Further Evidence Against a High Sodium Paleo Diet

By Loren Cordain, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Founder of The Paleo Diet
February 1, 2017
https://thepaleodiet.imgix.net/images/Sodium-Potassium-in-Foods-2-e1485891692135.jpg?auto=compress%2Cformat&fit=clip&q=95&w=900

An ongoing controversy about dietary salt (either refined salt or sea salt) in human ancestral diets represents a significant point of contention for the Paleo Diet community. Some popular bloggers contend that ingested high levels of dietary salt have no adverse effects upon our health and wellbeing1-10. My scientific colleagues and I disagree with these conclusions11-34.

The Table below clearly demonstrates that high sodium diets (greater than 2300 mg/day) are virtually impossible to achieve when eating a 2000 to 2500 kcal/day diet consisting of normal selections of un-adulterated, non-salted wild or domesticated foods.

Sodium-Potassium-in-Foods

References

[1] Kresser C. Shaking Up The Salt Myth: Healthy Salt Recommendations. May 4, 2012. //chriskresser.com/shaking-up-the-salt-myth-healthy-salt-recommendations/

[2] Staley B, Mason H. Make it Paleo: Over 200 Grain-Free Recipes for Any Occasion. Foreword by Mark Sisson. Victory Belt Publishing, Las Vegas NV, 2011.

[3] //www.marksdailyapple.com/salt-what-is-it-good-for/

[4] Fragoso S. Everyday Paleo. Foreword by Robb Wolf. Victory Belt Publishing, Las Vegas NV, 2011.

[5] Gower C. Paleo Slow Cooking: Gluten Free Recipes Made Simple. Foreword by Robb Wolf. Victory Belt Publishing, Las Vegas NV, 2012.

[6] Mayfield J, Mayfield C. Paleo Comfort Foods: Homestyle Cooking for a Gluten-Free Kitchen. Foreword by Robb Wolf. Victory Belt Publishing, Las Vegas NV, 2011.

[7] https://www.thepaleomom.com/is-salt-paleo/

[8] //paleoleap.com/salt-and-a-paleo-diet/

[9] //www.paleoplan.com/ingredients/salt/

[10] //synergyhw.blogspot.com/2013/05/salt-one-of-your-best-friends-on-paleo.html

[11] Eaton SB, Konner M. Paleolithic nutrition. A consideration of its nature and current implications. N Engl J Med. 1985 Jan 31;312(5):283-9.

[12] Eaton SB, Konner M, Shostak M. Stone agers in the fast lane: chronic degenerative diseases in evolutionary perspective. Am J Med. 1988 Apr;84(4):739-49.

[13] Eaton SB, Eaton SB 3rd, Konner MJ. Paleolithic nutrition revisited: a twelve-year retrospective on its nature and implications. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997 Apr;51(4):207-16.

[14] Cordain L, Eaton SB, Sebastian A, Mann N, Lindeberg S, Watkins BA, O'Keefe JH, Brand-Miller J. Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;81(2):341-54

[15] Konner M, Eaton SB. Paleolithic nutrition: twenty-five years later. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010 Dec;25(6):594-602.

[16] Lindeberg S. Paleolithic diets as a model for prevention and treatment of Western disease. Am J Hum Biol. 2012 Mar-Apr;24(2):110-5.

[17] Jönsson T, Granfeldt Y, Ahrén B, Branell UC, Pålsson G, Hansson A, Söderström M, Lindeberg S. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2009 Jul 16;8:35 doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-8-35.

[18] Carrera-Bastos P, Fontes Villalba M, O’Keefe JH, Lindeberg S, Cordain L. The western diet and lifestyle and diseases of civilization. Res Rep Clin Cardiol 2011; 2: 215-235.

[19] Frassetto LA, Schloetter M, Mietus-Synder M, Morris RC, Sebastian A. Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Dec;69(12):1376. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2015.193.

[20] Frassetto LA, Shi L, Schloetter M, Sebastian A, Remer T. Established dietary estimates of net acid production do not predict measured net acid excretion in patients with Type 2 diabetes on Paleolithic-Hunter-Gatherer-type diets. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Sep;67(9):899-903

[21] Frassetto LA, Schloetter M, Mietus-Synder M, Morris RC Jr, Sebastian A. Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Aug;63(8):947-55.

[22] Frassetto LA, Morris RC Jr, Sellmeyer DE, Sebastian A. Adverse effects of sodium chloride on bone in the aging human population resulting from habitual consumption of typical American diets. J Nutr. 2008 Feb;138(2):419S-422S.

[23] Sebastian A, Frassetto LA, Sellmeyer DE, Morris RC Jr. The evolution-informed optimal dietary potassium intake of human beings greatly exceeds current and recommended intakes. Semin Nephrol. 2006 Nov;26(6):447-53.

[24] Frassetto L, Morris RC Jr, Sebastian A. Long-term persistence of the urine calcium-lowering effect of potassium bicarbonate in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Feb;90(2):831-4.

[25] Sebastian A, Frassetto LA, Sellmeyer DE, Merriam RL, Morris RC Jr. Estimation of the net acid load of the diet of ancestral preagricultural Homo sapiens and their hominid ancestors. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Dec;76(6):1308-16.

[26] Frassetto L, Morris RC Jr, Sellmeyer DE, Todd K, Sebastian A. Diet, evolution and aging--the pathophysiologic effects of the post-agricultural inversion of the potassium-to-sodium and base-to-chloride ratios in the human diet. Eur J Nutr. 2001 Oct;40(5):200-13

[27] Morris RC Jr, Schmidlin O, Sebastian A, Tanaka M, Kurtz TW. Vasodysfunction That Involves Renal Vasodysfunction, Not Abnormally Increased Renal Retention of Sodium, Accounts for the Initiation of Salt-Induced Hypertension. Circulation. 2016 Mar 1;133(9):881-93

[28 Frassetto LA, Morris RC Jr, Sebastian A. Dietary sodium chloride intake independently predicts the degree of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in healthy humans consuming a net acid-producing diet. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Aug;293(2):F521-5.

[29] Morris RC Jr, Schmidlin O, Frassetto LA, Sebastian A. Relationship and interaction between sodium and potassium. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006 Jun;25(3 Suppl):262S-270S.

[30] Sellmeyer DE, Schloetter M, Sebastian A. Potassium citrate prevents increased urine calcium excretion and bone resorption induced by a high sodium chloride diet. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May;87(5):2008-12.

[31] Sebastian A, Harris ST, Ottaway JH, Todd KM, Morris RC Jr. Improved mineral balance and skeletal metabolism in postmenopausal women treated with potassium bicarbonate. N Engl J Med. 1994 Jun 23;330(25):1776-81.

[32] //thepaleodiet.com/sea-salt-devil-deep-blue-sea/

[33] //thepaleodiet.com/celtic-sea-salt/

[34] Morris RC Jr, Schmidlin O, Frassetto LA, Sebastian A. Relationship and interaction between sodium and potassium. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006 Jun;25(3 Suppl):262S-270S.

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