Tag Archives: seafood

Seafood Mercury Concerns Subside Amid New Research | The Paleo Diet

Fish and other marine life have been integral to human diets since the Paleolithic era. Some researchers even speculate that these foods “made us human” by enabling the rapid expansion of grey matter in the cerebral cortex. For three million years of evolution during the time of Australopithecus, brain capacity remained constant, but then curiously doubled during a one-million-year period between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens.1 The reasons for this great expansion are not entirely known, but increased dietary omega-3 from fish and shellfish was likely involved.

Fish consumption remains critically important today, but comes with complications unimaginable to our distant ancestors. Industrial pollution has greatly increased environmental mercury, much of which ends up in oceans and lakes, and finally, in small amounts, in the bodies of fish. In higher amounts, mercury is toxic and is especially problematic for developing babies. For years, the FDA was advising pregnant women to limit their fish consumption during pregnancy, but last year, they issued a draft revision encouraging prenatal fish consumption.2 This draft, which will eventually replace their previous recommendations, reflects a growing awareness, seen in the scientific literature, that fish is essential for developing babies and contains nutrients that limit, or even counter, the potentially harmful effects of mercury.

Recently published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, a new study, representing 30 years of research in the Seychelles, is one of the longest and largest population studies regarding seafood and mercury.3 The Seychelles is a nation of islands clustered together in the Indian Ocean, where residents consume 10 times as much seafood as do Europeans and Americans, making it an ideal place to study the long-term impact of mercury exposure via seafood. The researchers concluded that high fish consumption by pregnant mothers, as much as 12 meals per week (the FDA recommends three), does not cause developmental problems in children.

To the contrary, fish is extremely beneficial for development, and contains special nutrients that protect against mercury. Lead author Dr. Sean Strain explained, “This research provided us the opportunity to study the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFAs] on development and their potential to augment or counteract the toxic properties of mercury.”4 Mercury is thought to damage the brain through oxidation and corresponding inflammation. Fish are rich in omega-3 PUFAs, which prevent inflammation, as opposed to omega-6 PUFAs, which promote inflammation. This was reflected in the study whereby children of mothers who had higher omega-6 blood levels performed worse on tests designed to measure motor skills.

This study builds upon an impressive body of research conducted by Dr. Nicholas Ralston and colleagues at the University of North Dakota. Ralston has demonstrated that selenium also protects against mercury toxicity and that foods with relatively higher amounts of selenium with respect to mercury, pose neither developmental nor neurological risks based on mercury toxicity.5 “This may explain,” Ralston says, “why studies of maternal populations exposed to foods that contain Hg [mercury] in molar excess of Se [selenium], such as shark or pilot whale meats, have found adverse child outcomes, but studies of populations exposed to MeHg [methylmercury] by eating Se-rich ocean fish observe improved child IQs instead of harm.”6

The vast majority of commonly consumed fish and shellfish contain far more selenium relative to mercury and many have significant amounts of omega-3 PUFAs. This means that fish and shellfish, two important components of the Paleo diet, should not be limited nor discontinued based on mercury concerns. Whether for pregnant women, babies, children, or adults, we encourage you to keep seafood on the menu.

Christopher James Clark, B.B.A.

@nutrigrail
Nutritional Grail
www.ChristopherJamesClark.com

Christopher James Clark | The Paleo Diet TeamChristopher James Clark, B.B.A. is an award-winning writer, consultant, and chef with specialized knowledge in nutritional science and healing cuisine. He has a Business Administration degree from the University of Michigan and formerly worked as a revenue management analyst for a Fortune 100 company. For the past decade-plus, he has been designing menus, recipes, and food concepts for restaurants and spas, coaching private clients, teaching cooking workshops worldwide, and managing the kitchen for a renowned Greek yoga resort. Clark is the author of the critically acclaimed, award-winning book, Nutritional Grail.

REFERENCES

[1] Bradbury, J. (May 2011). Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA): An Ancient Nutrient for the Modern Human Brain. Nutrients, 3(5). Retrieved from //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257695/

[2] U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (June 2014). Fish: What Pregnant Women and Parents Should Know. Draft Updated Advice by FDA and EPA. Retrieved from //www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/Metals/ucm393070.htm

[3] Strain, JJ, et al. (January 2015). Prenatal exposure to methyl mercury from fish consumption and polyunsaturated fatty acids: associations with child development at 20 mo of age in an observational study in the Republic of Seychelles. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 101(1). Retrieved from //ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2015/01/21/ajcn.114.100503

[4] University of Rochester Medical Center. (January 21, 2015). Fatty acids in fish may shield brain from mercury damage. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/01/150121144835.htm

[5] Ralston, NV and Raymond, NJ. (November 2010). Dietary selenium’s protective effects against methylmercury toxicity. Toxicology, 278(1). Retrieved from //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20561558

[6] Ibid, Ralston.

Selecting Seafood for Health and Sustainability | The Paleo Diet

There’s no question that seafood is a great source of protein and omega-3 fatty acids, and that it should form an integral part of the Paleo Diet. But seafood doesn’t thrive in polluted waters, overfished waters, or in habitats damaged by fishing gear. So to get the good without the bad—and to ensure we have it for years to come—we need to know which species have the holy trinity of seafood: sustainable, safe, and nutritious.

Sustainable

Sustainably caught fish may seem like a nice-to-have, but it should really be on par with nutrition for importance when selecting seafood. Not only do we want our food to be harvested or caught in its highest nutritive state, we want that to continue indefinitely. It hasn’t always been that way, but more and more fisheries are making sustainability a reality by considering the health of ecosystems and fish populations as well as their profits. Seafood Watch® makes science-based recommendationsfor sustainable seafood.1,2,3 Here’s their current list of best choices, good alternatives, and choices to avoid.

Selecting Seafood for Health and Sustainability

The seafood recommendations in this guide are credited to the Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation ©2014. All rights reserved.

Download the PDF

Safe

In the seafood world, mercury, dioxins, and PCBs are the usual suspects when it comes to contamination. They’re not normally features of a “healthy and abundant stock” which is a fundamental criterion for sustainability1—so if you’re choosing sustainable, you’re likely choosing safe too. In addition, SeafoodWatch® posts health alerts if there are specific concerns for human health from a fishery.

Mercury, however, is a changing story. Mercury accumulates in fat tissues of large, long-lived predatory fish or shellfish, ultimately ending up on our dinner plates. We’ve been cautioned to limit these species in our diets, but surprisingly, that’s not the whole story. Mercury readily and irreversibly binds to selenium,4 which means that as long as the fish you’re eating has more selenium than mercury, your body won’t actually be retaining the mercury you ingest. And since the oceans are full of selenium, most ocean fish are perfectly safe to eat.5,6 Simply avoid shark and limit swordfish, tilefish, and king mackerel or use this infographic to moderate your consumption . Also keep in mind that in freshwater, mercury and selenium levels vary greatly with the composition of the surrounding soil. Check with your local authorities for health alerts.

Nutritious

Fish are great sources of vitamins and minerals as well as protein, but the biggest benefit from eating fish is the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA.7 Anyone who’s had king salmon and a haddock fillet can tell you, however, that all fish are not created equal when it comes to fat—and they’re not all created equal when it comes to omega-3 to omega-6 ratios either—and that matters! Here’s some nutritional data from the USDA for some popular fish and shellfish.6

Sustainable Choices in SeafoodSustainable Choices in Seafood

Highlighted numbers in the first four columns are amounts greater than 1 g/100 g; highlighted numbers in the last column are the fish with ratios greater than 5. A few things jump out.

  • Total fat isn’t everything: the number of fish hitting 1 g/100 g decreases as we move from total fat to polyunsaturated fat to omega-3s.
  • Atlantic mackerel, chinook salmon, herring, swordfish, and Bluefin tuna have high total fat and great omega-3/omega-6 ratios.
  • Only farmed Atlantic salmon has more than 1 g/100 g of omega-6s.
  • All but tilapia have an omega-3/omega-6 ratio greater than 1.
  • There doesn’t seem to be a relationship between total fat and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio. There are high fat options with low ratios (Atlantic salmon) and high ratio options with lower fat (squid).

Sustainable + Safe + Nutritious

So can we have our fish and eat it too? Yes! There is an impressively wide array of sustainable options to choose from, and we can assume that they’re safe choices, not only because they’re sustainable, but because they’re high in selenium. Many of those sustainable options are also fatty fish with great omega-3/omega-6 ratios (anything above 1 is great). SeafoodWatch® compiled their “Super Green List” based on these criteria, but let’s look at the poor performers to compare.

  • Atlantic salmon: not sustainably caught, high omega-6s, ratio close to 1
  • Bluefin tuna: great fat profile, great ratio, but not sustainable
  • Tilapia: sustainably farmed, but lower in fat, ratio less than 1
  • Sharks: more mercury than selenium, not sustainably caught

The bottom line: while some seafood looks good in the nutritional breakdown, from a sustainability standpoint, some species may be better than others. So, eat your recommended portion of omega-3s, but choose options that tick all the boxes for your health as well as the ocean’s.

Andrea MooreAndrea Moore has dipped her toes in a lot of ponds, lakes, and oceans over the years. She has adventured around the world doing odd jobs and studying biology, languages, and sailing.

Now surprisingly settled in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Andrea’s still up to a bit of everything as a marine biologist, a writer, and an editor, living the Paleo lifestyle.

fix-logoFix.com is a lifestyle blog devoted to bringing you expert content to make your life easier. From products, to food, to fishing, to projects, we’ll be providing you with a daily fix of content from our experienced and knowledgeable team of writers.

 

REFERENCES

1. Monterey Bay Aquarium. Developing Seafood Watch® Recommendations. Version: January 23, 2014.

2. Monterey Bay Aquarium. Seafood Watch® Criteria for Aquaculture. Accessed: September 5, 2014.

3. Monterey Bay Aquarium. Seafood Watch ® Criteria for Fisheries. Version: March 31, 2014.

4. Ralston NVC, Ralston CR, Blackwell 3rd JL, Raymond LJ. Dietary and tissue selenium in relation to methylmercury toxicity. NeuroToxicology 2008;29(5):802-11.

5. U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. 7th Edition, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, December 2010.

6. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Nutrient Data Laboratory. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 27. Version Current: August 2014.

7. Kidd PM. Omega-3 DHA and EPA for cognition, behavior, and mood: clinical findings and structural-functional synergies with cell membrane phospholipids. Altern Med Rev 2007;12(3):207-27.

Garlicky Saffron Clams

Clams are an ideal food for the modern Paleo chef. They’re delicious, super easy to prepare, and packed with nutrition. A modest 100-gram portion (weight before cooking, without shells) provides over eight times the USDA’s dietary reference intakes (DRI) for daily consumption.1 This same portion also provides 78% of your daily iron requirements, substantial amounts of selenium, manganese, and vitamin C, and 13g of protein. That’s pretty incredible when you consider that clams are over 80% water.

Our garlicky saffron clams leave you with an incredibly flavorful broth, which you can either drink or make into a soup. While this recipe can be prepared sans saffron, if you decide to spice the dish with it, be sure to not drain the broth down the disposal. Saffron is a prized spice not only because it is handpicked, but also each flower yields only three stigmas. To put it in perspective, saffron takes over an acre of land and hundreds of thousands of flowers to produce just one pound of saffron.2

Saffron has been revered since time immemorial for its healing properties. Modern science has confirmed that saffron extracts have chemo-preventive properties against cancer.3 But if you don’t have saffron on hand or prefer to spend your money elsewhere, not to worry! Just follow the directions below, omit the saffron and still enjoy a fabulously healthy, delicious clam dish.

INGREDIENTS

Serves 2-3

  • 2 lbs clams
  • 1 tomato
  • 1 pinch saffron (optional)
  • 1 bundle fresh cilantro, finely chopped
  • 1 small bundle fresh thyme, stems removed
  • 1 clove garlic, pressed
  • 1 tbsp lemon juice
  • Freshly milled black pepper

DIRECTIONS

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Christopher James Clark, B.B.A.
@nutrigrail
Nutritional Grail
www.ChristopherJamesClark.com

Christopher James Clark | The Paleo Diet TeamChristopher James Clark, B.B.A. is an award-winning writer, consultant, and chef with specialized knowledge in nutritional science and healing cuisine. He has a Business Administration degree from the University of Michigan and formerly worked as a revenue management analyst for a Fortune 100 company. For the past decade-plus, he has been designing menus, recipes, and food concepts for restaurants and spas, coaching private clients, teaching cooking workshops worldwide, and managing the kitchen for a renowned Greek yoga resort. Clark is the author of the critically acclaimed, award-winning book, Nutritional Grail.

See more recipes!

references

1. Nutrition Data. Retrieved September 4, 2014 from //nutritiondata.self.com/facts/finfish-and-shellfish-products/4180/2

2. CNN. (July 23, 2008). The world’s priciest foods. Retrieved September 4, 2014 from //money.cnn.com/galleries/2008/fsb/0807/gallery.most_expensive_foods.fsb/4.html

3. Abdullaev, FI. (January 2002). Cancer chemopreventive and tumoricidal properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Experimental Biology and Medicine, 227(1). Retrieved September 4, 2014 from //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11788779

Allergic to Fish | The Paleo Diet

Good Morning,

I’ve recently started on the Paleo Diet. I’ve read through your site and others to make sure I’m going about it the right way. What a revelation! It’s fantastic in its simplicity.

My concern is that when I was about 18 I developed an allergy to fish. I have no idea how this happened. I ate two or three nights a week growing up at home. Curiously, this allergy seems to only apply to scaled fish, as I can still eat shellfish. I am 23 years old.

When I eat fish I get terrible heartburn/indigestion, and the last time I tried it, about two years ago, my face started swelling and itching. I saw an allergist who told me to avoid fish because of the potential of a very serious reaction.

What do you recommend I do? It seems like eating seafood is a big part of the Paleo Diet. I’m happy to eat shellfish, but aside from shrimp it’s often prohibitively expensive. Obviously I’m not going to eat fish unless I can “outgrow” the allergy. I was once allergic to eggs, but I’ve gotten over that now.

Thanks!
Harrison


Maelán Fontes’ Response:

Dear Harrison,

From an evolutionary standpoint fish allergy is nonsense, as it has been part of the human nutrition since, probably, 2-2.5 million years ago.

Allergy is an exaggerated reaction of the body’s immune system against foreign proteins, where the body’s common mucosal immune system (located in the gut, nose, eyes, lungs, etc) increases the production of cell (eosinophils) and/or antibody (IgE) mediated immune response. This leads to histamine release throughout the CMIS and signs and symptoms related to allergy, such as inflammation, redness, itching, sneezing, or anaphylactic shock if acute vasodilatation occurs.

But how or why do fish proteins trigger an allergy reaction?

  1. An early exposure to food proteins, lets say before 3-6 months of life, when the gut associated lymphoid tissue is immature increases the risk of allergy later in life.
  2. An increased intestinal permeability allows food proteins to pass through the gut barrier and skip M-cells mediated oral tolerance, inducing hyper-sensitivity to those proteins.
  3. In the last years a wide body of scientific papers has shed light to what is known as the “hygiene hypothesis”. A correlative association has been shown between increased use of antibiotics and vaccines and inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes and allergy, during the last 50 years. Human beings are less exposed to microorganisms, such as intestinal bacteria, than they used to. This leads to lack of immune regulation mediated, in part, by gut and environmental microorganisms.

How can the Paleo Diet help you?

Of course we can not address point 1 but we can do something regarding points 2 and 3.

The Paleo Diet is free of some food known to increase intestinal permeability such as cereal grains, legumes (soya and peanuts), alcohol, tomato, potato, quinoa, amaranth, egg white, alfalfa sprouts and root beer (quillaja extract). By eliminating those foods and eating a diet based on grass produced or free ranging meats, shellfish, vegetables, fruits and nuts your intestinal permeability will decrease and your immune system will be less challenged by those food proteins (fish) and perhaps we can restore immune tolerance to a normal food as fish. For more information about intestinal permeability and nutrition we recommend you to check out our published newsletters section.

Regarding point 3 we suggest you to take a probiotic supplement (6-9 billion/day) for several months.

Other supplements that can help you improve intestinal permeability:

  • Pre-biotic 2-4grs/day
  • L-glutamine 0.2grs/kg body weight one month, then 0.1gr/kg
  • Zinc 25mg/day
  • Vitamin D 2000 IU
  • Omega-3 fatty acids EPA+DHA=2.6grs/day

I hope this helps.
Maelán Fontes Villalba – MS Ph.D. candidate in Medical Sciences at Lund University, Sweden

Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content in Fish and Seafood | The Paleo Diet
In the past decade, perhaps the single most important dietary recommendation to improve our health and prevent chronic disease is to increase our dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids which are found primarily in fatty fish.  Thousands of scientific papers spanning a variety of diseases unequivocally demonstrate the health benefit of these fatty acids.  In randomized clinical trials that enrolled patients with pre-existing coronary heart disease, omega-3 fatty acid supplements significantly reduced cardiovascular events (deaths, non-fatal heart attacks, and non-fatal strokes).  Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease through a number of mechanisms, including a reduction in heart beat irregularities called arrhythmias, a decrease in blood clots which in turn can decrease the risk for heart attack and stroke, decrease in blood triglycerides, slightly lower blood pressure, decrease rate of plaque formation in arteries, reduce overall inflammation which is now known to be an important factor causing atherosclerosis.

In addition to reducing the risk for heart disease, regular consumption of fish or supplemental omega-3 fatty acids may be helpful in preventing, treating, or improving a wide variety of diseases and disorders, including but not limited to virtually all inflammatory diseases (any disease ending with “itis”), rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disorders (Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis), periodontal disease (gingivitis), mental disorders (autism, depression, postpartum depression, bi-polar disorder, borderline personality disorder, impaired cognitive development in infants and children), acne, asthma, exercise induced asthma, many types of cancers, macular degeneration, pre-term birth, psoriasis, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cancer cachexia, intermittent claudication, skin damage from sunlight, IgA nephropathy, lupus erythematosus, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and migraine headaches.

The average U.S. diet is deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and amounts to a paltry 1.6 grams per day (of which 1.4 grams come from alpha linolenic acid [ALA] and only 0.1 to 0.2 grams come from EPA and DHA).  Most of the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids are due to EPA and DHA.  Because the conversion of ALA to DHA and EPA in the liver is inefficient, very little ALA is converted to EPA and DHA.

Try to include at least 0.5-1.8 grams of EPA + DHA per day in your diet, either by eating fish or fish oil supplements.  If you have documented coronary heart disease, you should include at least 1.0 grams of EPA + DHA in your diet.  Patients with hypertriglyceridemia (elevated or high blood triglycerides) can lower their values by as much as 40 percent by taking 2-4 grams of EPA + DHA per day.  If you are taking more than 3 grams of EPA + DHA per day, consult with your physician because high intakes tend to prevent blood from clotting and may cause excessive nose bleeding.

Here is a link to a scientific paper by the American Heart Association on the subject:
//circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/106/21/2747

Omega-3 fatty acids content in fish and seafood per 100-gram portion

ALA = alpha linolenic acid (18:3n3), EPA = eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3), DHA = docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3), Tr = Trace amount.

ALA (g) EPA (g) DHA (g) Total
Finfish
Anchovy, European 0.5 0.9 1.4
Bass, freshwater Tr 0.1 0.2 0.3
Bass, striped Tr 0.2 0.6 0.8
Bluefish 0.4 0.8 1.2
Burbot 0.1 0.1 0.2
Capelin 0.1 0.6 0.5 1.2
Carp 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.6
Catfish, brown bullhead 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.5
Catfish, channel Tr 0.1 0.2 0.3
Cisco 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.5
Cod, Atlantic Tr 0.1 0.2 0.3
Cod, Pacific Tr 0.1 0.1 0.2
Croaker, Atlantic Tr 0.1 0.1 0.2
Dogfish, spiny 0.1 0.7 1.2 2.0
Dolphinfish Tr Tr 0.1 0.1
Drum, black Tr 0.1 0.1 0.2
Drum, freshwater 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.6
Eel, European 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.9
Flounder, unspecified Tr 0.1 0.1 0.2
Flounder, yellowtail Tr 0.1 0.1 0.2
Grouper, jewfish Tr Tr 0.3 0.3
Grouper, red Tr 0.2 0.2
Haddock Tr 0.1 0.1 0.2
Hake, Atlantic Tr Tr Tr 0.0
Hake, Pacific Tr 0.2 0.2 0.4
Hake, red 0.1 0.1 0.2
Hake, silver 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.6
Hake, unspecified 0.1 0.4 0.5
Halibut, Greenland Tr 0.5 0.4 0.9
Halibut, Pacific 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.5
Herring, Atlantic 0.1 0.7 0.9 1.7
Herring, Pacific 0.1 1.0 0.7 1.8
Herring, round 0.1 0.4 0.8 1.3
Mackerel, Atlantic 0.1 0.9 1.6 2.6
Mackerel, chub 0.3 0.9 1.0 2.2
Mackerel, horse Tr 0.3 0.3 0.6
Mackerel, Japanese horse 0.1 0.5 1.3 1.9
Mackerel, king 1.0 1.2 2.2
Mullet, striped 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.6
Mullet, unspecified Tr 0.5 0.6 1.1
Ocean perch Tr 0.1 0.1 0.2
Perch, white 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.4
Perch, yellow Tr 0.1 0.2 0.3
Pike, northern Tr Tr 0.1 0.1
Pike, walleye Tr 0.1 0.2 0.3
Plaice, European Tr 0.1 0.1 0.2
Pollock 0.1 0.4 0.5
Pompano, Florida 0.2 0.4 0.6
Ratfish Tr Tr 0.1 0.1
Rockfish, brown Tr 0.3 0.4 0.7
Rockfish, canary Tr 0.2 0.3 0.5
Rockfish, unspecified Tr 0.2 0.3 0.5
Sablefish 0.1 0.7 0.7 1.5
Salmon, Atlantic 0.2 0.3 0.9 1.4
Salmon, Chinook 0.1 0.8 0.6 1.5
Salmon, chum 0.1 0.4 0.6 1.1
Salmon, coho 0.2 0.3 0.5 1.0
Salmon, pink Tr 0.4 0.6 1.0
Salmon, sockeye 0.1 0.5 0.7 1.3
Saury 0.1 0.5 0.8 1.4
Scad, Muroaji 0.1 0.5 1.5 2.1
Scad, other Tr Tr 0.0
Sea bass, Japanese Tr 0.1 0.3 0.4
Seatrout, sand Tr 0.1 0.2 0.3
Seatrout, spotted Tr 0.1 0.1 0.2
Shark, unspecified Tr 0.5 0.5
Sheepshead Tr 0.1 0.1 0.2
Smelt, pond 0.1 0.2 0.3
Smelt, rainbow 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.8
Smelt, sweet 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.6
Snapper, red Tr Tr 0.2 0.2
Sole, European Tr Tr 0.1 0.1
Sprat 0.5 0.8 1.3
Sturgeon, Atlantic Tr 1.0 0.5 1.5
Sturgeon, common 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.4
Sunfish, pumpkinseed Tr Tr 0.1 0.1
Swordfish 0.1 0.1 0.2
Trout, arctic char Tr 0.1 0.5 0.6
Trout, brook 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.6
Trout, lake 0.4 0.5 1.1 2.0
Trout, rainbow 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.6
Tuna, albacore 0.2 0.3 1.0 1.5
Tuna, bluefin 0.4 1.2 1.6
Tuna, skipjack 0.1 0.3 0.4
Tuna, unspecified 0.1 0.4 0.5
Whitefish, lake 0.2 0.3 1.0 1.5
Whiting, European Tr Tr 0.1 0.1
Wolffish, Atlantic Tr 0.3 0.3 0.6
Crustaceans
Crab, Alaska king Tr 0.2 0.1 0.3
Crab, blue T r 0.2 0.2 0.4
Crab, Dungeness 0.2 0.1 0.3
Crab, queen Tr 0.2 0.1 0.3
Crayfish, unspecified Tr 0.1 Tr 0.1
Lobster, European 0.1 0.1 0.2
Lobster, northern 0.1 0.1 0.2
Shrimp, Atlantic brown Tr 0.2 0.1 0.3
Shrimp, Atlantic white Tr 0.2 0.2 0.4
Shrimp, Japanese Tr 0.3 0.2 0.5
Shrimp, northern Tr 0.3 0.2 0.5
Shrimp, other Tr 0.1 0.1 0.2
Shrimp, unspecified Tr 0.2 0.1 0.3
Spiny lobster, Caribbean Tr 0.2 0.1 0.3
Spiny lobster, southern rock Tr 0.2 0.1 0.3
Mollusks
Abalone, New Zealand Tr Tr 0.0
Abalone, South African Tr Tr Tr 0.0
Clam, hardshell Tr Tr Tr 0.0
Clam, hen Tr Tr 0.0
Clam, littleneck Tr Tr Tr 0.0
Clam, Japanese hardshell 0.1 0.1 0.2
Clam, softshell Tr 0.2 0.2 0.4
Clam, surf Tr 0.1 0.1 0.2
Conch, unspecified Tr 0.6 0.4 1.0
Cuttlefish, unspecified Tr Tr Tr 0.0
Mussel, blue Tr 0.2 0.3 0.5
Mussel, Mediterranean 0.1 0.1 0.2
Octopus, common 0.1 0.1 0.2
Oyster, eastern Tr 0.2 0.2 0.4
Oyster, European 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.6
Oyster, Pacific Tr 0.4 0.2 0.6
Periwinkle, common 0.2 0.5 Tr 0.7
Scallop, Atlantic deep sea Tr 0.1 0.1 0.2
Scallop, calico Tr 0.1 0.1 0.2
Scallop, unspecified Tr 0.1 0.1 0.2
Squid, Atlantic Tr 0.1 0.3 0.4
Squid, short-finned Tr 0.2 0.4 0.6
Squid, unspecified Tr 0.1 0.2 0.3
Fish Oils
Cod liver oil 0.7 9.0 9.5 19.2
Herring oil 0.6 7.1 4.3 12.0
Menhaden oil 1.1 12.7 7.9 21.7
MaxEPAT, concentrated 0 17.8 11.6 29.4
Salmon oil 1 8.8 11.1 20.9

Source: Exler J, Wehrauch JL. Provisional table on the content of omega-3 fatty acids and other fat components in selected foods. U.S.D.A., Human Nutrition Information Service, HNS/PT-103, 1988.

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