Tag Archives: paleo

Junk Food | The Paleo Diet

While the title of this article may at first seem implausible (and somewhat scary), a new scientific study seems to show that an inborn preference for junk food is not only possible – it may be affecting more of us than ever could have possibly been imagined. For the first time in history, researchers for Obesity Society have identified two genetic variants, which help to change how the brain responds to high-calorie foods.1 2 While this is potentially terrible news for those of us who struggle to resist highly processed and manufactured foods – it also means there is possibly a way to stop this genetic variant from controlling our dietary choices. This could include changing how the brain processes junk food, changing how much people crave these foods, and even altering the brain’s dopamine system. There are even more potential treatments using this new information – including using gut hormones to act on dopamine brain cells.

To delve into further detail, researchers specifically found that two genetic variants – FTO and DRD2 – influenced brain activity related to the reward system. This occurred when subjects simply looked at pictures of high-calorie foods. As I’ve written previously, this is far from the first time neuroscience (or other scientific studies) have shown that some of our brains respond differently, to rewarding foods.3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 In early 2014, for example, a study was published which showed that not only did some people crave chocolate (while others did not) – but that there was literally different brain activity, in the two groups.12

Asmaro D, Liotti M. High-caloric and chocolate stimuli processing in healthy humans: an integration of functional imaging and electrophysiological findings. Nutrients. 2014;6(1):319-41.

In another, similar study, researchers found that by altering dopamine receptors (specifically D2 receptors) – they could cure binge eating.13 Unfortunately for us, that ground breaking study was done on rats – not humans. However, this is further evidence that our brain plays a fundamental role in overeating and cravings. In fact, it may be the excess stimulation of the nucleus accumbens (the ‘pleasure center’ of the brain) from junk food, which leads to obesity.14 15 16 17 18 19 20

How does this relate to our current world? Well, 70% of the United States is overweight, with 30% of us now being obese.21 What accounts for all these extra pounds? Certainly, as shown by research from Yale scientists, a hyper-stimulatory environment and excess advertisement of junk food – is a large part of the problem.22 23 24 But this data is compounded by other research, which shows that extended access to high-fat and high-sugar food, results in behavioral and physiological changes – which are similar to those caused by illegal drugs.25 [26] While a large portion of these corresponding studies were conducted on rats, this does not mean that the results will not translate to humans. Like many areas of scientific research, we simply need more data.

Baik JH. Dopamine signaling in food addiction: role of dopamine D2 receptors. BMB Rep. 2013;46(11):519-26.

As I’ve covered previously, the neurobiology of sugar addiction is fascinating as well.27 28 The brain is bombarded with an overwhelming amount of chemicals and reward, when you consume junk food.29 30 31 32 Over time, this leads to a higher quantity of junk food needing to be consumed, to achieve the same rewarding effect.33 34 35 So even for those of us who are not genetically susceptible to the temptations of junk food, we can alter our brain’s preferences and reward receptors, to become just as likely to crave it.36 37 38 39 40

Gómez-pinilla F. Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008;9(7):568-78.

The good side of all this bad news? Your brain can also be positively impacted by food.41 42 43 44 45 46 A Paleo diet, which is full of nutrient dense foods, will help keep you satiated, and keep your brain from craving high sugar, nutritionally empty choices. Be sure to load your plate with wild-caught fish (high in brain-friendly omega-3 fatty acids), healthy fats (like avocados) and complete sources of protein (like grass fed beef). You may indeed be hardwired for junk food – but that doesn’t mean you have to give in to temptation. Adopting a Paleo diet is associated with many different health benefits – many of which work to counteract the negative effects of junk food.47 48 49 50 What this means, is that you can improve your health drastically, by simply changing what’s on your plate. Start eating a Paleo diet today, and watch your health soar!

References

1. Available at: //www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151105103957.htm. Accessed November 23, 2015.

2. Available at: //www.newswise.com/articles/are-you-hardwired-to-enjoy-high-calorie-foods-research-links-genes-to-heightened-brain-reward-responses-to-foods-high-in-fat-and-sugar. Accessed November 23, 2015.

3. Fortuna JL. The obesity epidemic and food addiction: clinical similarities to drug dependence. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2012;44(1):56-63.

4. Garber AK, Lustig RH. Is fast food addictive?. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2011;4(3):146-62.

5. Grimm O., Jacob M.J., Kroemer N.B., Krebs L., Vollstädt-Klein S., Kobiella A., Wolfensteller U., Smolka M.L. The personality trait self-directedness predicts the amygdala’s reaction to appetizing cues in fMRI. Appetite. 2012;58:1023–1029.

6. Macht M., Mueller J. Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states. Appetite.2007;49:667–674.

7. Kringelbach M.L. The human orbitofrontal cortex: Linking reward to hedonic experience. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 2005;6:691–702.

8. Francis S.T., Head K., Morris P.G., Macdonald I.A. The effect of flavanol-rich cocoa on the fMRI response to a cognitive task in healthy young people. J. Cardiovasc. Pharm. 2006;47:S215–S220.

9. Small D.M., Zatorre R.J., Dagher A., Evans A.C., Jones-Gotman M. Changes in brain activity related to eating chocolate: From pleasure to aversion. Brain. 2001;124:1720–1733.

10. Kemmotsu N., Murphy C. Restrained eaters show altered brain response to food odor. Physiol. Behav.2006;87:323–329.

11.  Blechert J., Feige B., Hajcak G., Tuschen-Caffier B. To eat or not to eat? Availability of food modulates the electrocortical response to food pictures in restrained eaters. Appetite. 2010;54:262–268.

12. Asmaro D, Liotti M. High-caloric and chocolate stimuli processing in healthy humans: an integration of functional imaging and electrophysiological findings. Nutrients. 2014;6(1):319-41.

13. Halpern CH, Tekriwal A, Santollo J, et al. Amelioration of binge eating by nucleus accumbens shell deep brain stimulation in mice involves D2 receptor modulation. J Neurosci. 2013;33(17):7122-9.

14. Lawrence NS, Hinton EC, Parkinson JA, Lawrence AD. Nucleus accumbens response to food cues predicts subsequent snack consumption in women and increased body mass index in those with reduced self-control. Neuroimage. 2012;63(1):415-22.

15. Salamone JD, Cousins MS, Mccullough LD, Carriero DL, Berkowitz RJ. Nucleus accumbens dopamine release increases during instrumental lever pressing for food but not free food consumption. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994;49(1):25-31.

16. Olausson P, Jentsch JD, Tronson N, Neve RL, Nestler EJ, Taylor JR. DeltaFosB in the nucleus accumbens regulates food-reinforced instrumental behavior and motivation. J Neurosci. 2006;26(36):9196-204.

17. Day JJ, Carelli RM. The nucleus accumbens and Pavlovian reward learning. Neuroscientist. 2007;13(2):148-59.

18. Pratt WE, Kelley AE. Nucleus accumbens acetylcholine regulates appetitive learning and motivation for food via activation of muscarinic receptors. Behav Neurosci. 2004;118(4):730-9.

19. Salamone JD, Correa M, Mingote S, Weber SM. Nucleus accumbens dopamine and the regulation of effort in food-seeking behavior: implications for studies of natural motivation, psychiatry, and drug abuse. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;305(1):1-8.

20. Demos KE, Heatherton TF, Kelley WM. Individual differences in nucleus accumbens activity to food and sexual images predict weight gain and sexual behavior. J Neurosci. 2012;32(16):5549-52.

21. Available at: //www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/obesity-overweight.htm. Accessed November 23, 2015.

22. Yokum S, Gearhardt AN, Harris JL, Brownell KD, Stice E. Individual differences in striatum activity to food commercials predict weight gain in adolescents. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(12):2544-51.

23. Udo T, Weinberger AH, Grilo CM, et al. Heightened vagal activity during high-calorie food presentation in obese compared with non-obese individuals–results of a pilot study. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2014;8(3):e201-98.

24. Gearhardt AN, Roberto CA, Seamans MJ, Corbin WR, Brownell KD. Preliminary validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale for children. Eat Behav. 2013;14(4):508-12.

25. Epstein DH, Shaham Y. Cheesecake-eating rats and the question of food addiction. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13(5):529-31.

26. Stockburger J., Schmälzle R., Flaisch T., Bublatzky F., Schupp H.T. The impact of hunger on food cue processing: An event-related brain potential study. Neuroimage. 2009;47:1819–1829.

27. Yang Q. Gain weight by “going diet?” Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010. Yale J Biol Med. 2010;83(2):101-8.

28. García-cáceres C, Tschöp MH. The emerging neurobiology of calorie addiction. Elife. 2014;3:e01928.

29. Norton P, Falciglia G, Gist D. Physiologic control of food intake by neural and chemical mechanisms. J Am Diet Assoc. 1993;93(4):450-4.

30. Wurtman RJ. Nutrients affecting brain composition and behavior. Integr Psychiatry. 1987;5(4):226-38.

31. Young SN. How to increase serotonin in the human brain without drugs. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2007;32(6):394-9.

32. Wang GJ, Volkow ND, Telang F, et al. Exposure to appetitive food stimuli markedly activates the human brain. Neuroimage. 2004;21(4):1790-7.

33. Baik JH. Dopamine signaling in food addiction: role of dopamine D2 receptors. BMB Rep. 2013;46(11):519-26.

34. Lietti C.V., Murray M.M., Hudry J., le Coutre J., Toepel U. The role of energetic value in dynamic brain response adaptation during repeated food image viewing. Appetite. 2012;58:11–18.

35. Meule A. Are certain foods addictive?. Front Psychiatry. 2014;5:38.

36. Davis C, Curtis C, Levitan RD, Carter JC, Kaplan AS, Kennedy JL. Evidence that ‘food addiction’ is a valid phenotype of obesity. Appetite. 2011;57(3):711-7.

37. Reward systems and food intake: role of opioids. International Journal of Obesity. 2009;:S54.

38. Naleid AM, Grace MK, Chimukangara M, Billington CJ, Levine AS. Paraventricular opioids alter intake of high-fat but not high-sucrose diet depending on diet preference in a binge model of feeding. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293(1):R99-105.

39. Woolley JD, Lee BS, Fields HL. Nucleus accumbens opioids regulate flavor-based preferences in food consumption. Neuroscience. 2006;143(1):309-17.

40. Zhang M, Gosnell BA, Kelley AE. Intake of high-fat food is selectively enhanced by mu opioid receptor stimulation within the nucleus accumbens. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998;285(2):908-14.

41. Gómez-pinilla F. Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008;9(7):568-78.

42. Bourre JM. Effects of nutrients (in food) on the structure and function of the nervous system: update on dietary requirements for brain. Part 1: micronutrients. J Nutr Health Aging. 2006;10(5):377-85.

43. Hill JO, Berridge K, Avena NM, et al. Neurocognition: the food–brain connection. Adv Nutr. 2014;5(5):544-6.

44. Armelagos GJ. Brain evolution, the determinates of food choice, and the omnivore’s dilemma. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014;54(10):1330-41.

45. Galland L. The gut microbiome and the brain. J Med Food. 2014;17(12):1261-72.

46. Lachance L, Ramsey D. Food, mood, and brain health: implications for the modern clinician. Mo Med. 2015;112(2):111-5.

47. Kowalski LM, Bujko J. Evaluation of biological and clinical potential of paleolithic diet.. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2012;63(1):9-15.

48. Konner M, Eaton SB. Paleolithic nutrition: twenty-five years later. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010;25(6):594-602.

49. Klonoff DC. The beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on type 2 diabetes and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2009;3(6):1229-32.

50. Frassetto LA, Schloetter M, Mietus-synder M, Morris RC, Sebastian A. Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63(8):947-55.

Arthritis | The Paleo Diet
It’s often times a diagnosis of cancer, diabetes, multiple sclerosis (MS), or another disease which proves to be the pivot point for individuals to make significant changes to their eating and exercise habits. Whether the change stems from obvious reasons, like losing weight because obesity has been the causal agent for developing type 2 diabetes, or per the advice of their physicians to cut out gluten and dairy following an autoimmune diagnosis, these steps are reactive versus proactive.

If we were to exercise daily and eat foods that set us up for health, rather than sickness in the first place, would we be able to determine our destiny? Clearly, we can take preventative measures to lower our risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes by leading an active lifestyle, veering away from the typical, highly refined Standard American Diet (SAD), and implementing a Paleo diet.

But what about minimizing our risk for autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with diet? Science suggests it’s looking quite promising.

Two studies presented at the American College of Rheumatology Annual Meeting in San Francisco show diet can significantly lower our chance for developing RA.1 RA is an autoimmune disease where the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the joints, creating inflammation that causes the tissue lining of the joints to thicken, resulting in swelling and pain in and around the joint.2

For those following a Paleo regime, inflammation is hardly a foreign term, and you’re familiar with the notion that avoiding certain foods can help offset symptoms dramatically.3 But how does this scientifically factor into RA treatment or minimize risk altogether?

In the first study, researchers found “typical Western diets high in red meat, processed meat, refined grains, fried food, high-fat dairy, and sweets can increase a person’s risk of developing RA in comparison to Prudent diets (a diet low in total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol and sodium which aid in lowering cholesterol and triglyceride blood levels and blood pressure)4 made mostly of fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, poultry and fish.”

The second study found that “following the Dietary Guidelines for Americans can also lower one’s chances of developing the disease because they provide authoritative advice about consuming fewer calories, making informed food choices, and being physically active to attain and maintain a healthy weight, reduce risk of chronic disease, and promote overall health.”

How was this measured? By using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index, created to measure how well participants followed the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, researchers observed associations of the subjects’ diets and their likelihood of developing RA. The researchers noted those who best adhered to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans had a 33% reduced risk of developing RA when compared to those who did not follow the guidelines as closely. And, just as in the first study, the researchers noted that body mass index may be a modest intermediate factor linking diet and risk of RA.

A few questions arise. If the sole means of data collection was to review and analyze what the participants reported to eat, how accurate can the findings really be? Were findings measured upon accountability and how can we be sure participants didn’t take the liberty of “cleaning up” their food log entries, energy levels, or sleep patterns?

A colleague of mine joked in reference to a new client who’d touted the benefits of a new fad diet, “any eating plan is going to ‘work’ in comparison to what one did before, because before, they didn’t have one!”

Researchers state “the single-nutrient approach may be inadequate for taking into account complicated interactions among nutrients, and high levels of inter-correlation makes it difficult to examine their separate effects.” So grouping all foods into  one lump category (recall the list: “diets high in red meat, processed meat, refined grains, fried food, high-fat dairy, and sweets”) doesn’t differentiate between high quality, grass fed meats, from the corn-fed beef. Nor does the “diet made mostly of fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, poultry and fish” distinguish the effects of antinutrients contained in legumes and grains,5 or the glycemic load of eating too much fruit.6

While I do agree that a healthy diet may prevent RA development, it’s a matter of deciphering what actually comprises a healthy diet. And from everything I’ve read and seen over the past decade, I certainly don’t need further convincing that a real Paleo diet can be the remedy to addressing a diagnosis of RA. By eating a diet rich in alkaline, anti-inflammatory foods, the body is armed with its best defenses and most equipped to stay diseases free for a healthy, long life!

References

1. “Diet May Determine Your Risk for Rheumatoid Arthritis.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2015

2. “What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis?” What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis? Arthritis Foundation, n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2015

3. Wahls, Terry L., and Eve Adamson. The Wahls Protocol: How I Beat Progressive MS Using Paleo Principles and Functional Medicine. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print

4. “What Is the Prudent Diet?” LIVESTRONG.COM. LIVESTRONG.COM, 30 June 2015. Web. 16 Nov. 2015

5. Stephenson, Nell. “Antinutrients, the Antithesis of True Paleo | The Paleo Diet.” The Paleo Diet. The Paleo Diet, 10 Mar. 2015. Web. 16 Nov. 2015

6. “Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load | The Paleo Diet | Dr. Loren Cordain.” The Paleo Diet. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2015

Sodium Levels | The Paleo Diet

For the majority of people, the problem with sodium is too much of it, not too little. National health organizations and the Paleo diet agree that high levels of dietary sodium should be avoided for healthy blood pressure levels and to reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease.1 However, diets too low in sodium are also dangerous, especially for athletes engaged in endurance sports.  Fortunately, it is possible for athletes to keep their sodium levels in check, without added processed foods, while still following the Paleo diet.

Understanding the Importance of Sodium in the Body

Although the Paleo diet is in inherently a low sodium lifestyle, dietary sodium, from naturally rich sodium foods and no common table salt, is necessary for everyday bodily functions.2 Muscles, including both the skeletal and cardiac types, need sodium to function properly. Twitches, cramps, spasms, and muscle weakness can occur when sodium levels are too low. The nervous system also uses electrolytes, such as ions of sodium, potassium and chloride, to transmit nerve impulses across cell membranes and to trigger muscle contractions.3 Sodium, in conjunction with potassium, is also necessary to maintain normal blood pressure, blood volume, and to balance bodily fluids.4 If that balance is disturbed, problems like heat-related illnesses and hyponatremia, low blood sodium (<130 mmol/L), may occur.5

Do Athletes Require More Dietary Sodium?

One major concern for athletes, especially those engaged in endurance activities, is that high sweat rates in athletes result in loss of both fluids and sodium.6 Low blood sodium can also occur in people who drink too much water, eat too little food, or take medications that deplete the body’s supply of water.7 Research indicates that the amount of sodium consumed in the days prior to exercise, might be more important in maintaining the proper levels during exercise, then in specific supplementation during the activity.8

Additionally, avoiding sodium rich beverages and foods during physical activity has been shown to not impact performance,9 ingesting sodium prior or during intense or prolonged physical activities is linked to an improved rate of absorption of water and carbohydrate in the small intestines.10 An athlete can encourage proper blood serum sodium levels by drinking for thirst and eating whole fruit, such as oranges, for a gradual fructose release.

Pre-and-Post Workout Meals

Pre-and-post workout meals can provide the necessary recovery nutrients rather than turning to processed supplements that are often sickeningly sweet, and contain many unnecessary additives and refined sugars. Surprisingly, they don’t contain exorbitant amounts of sodium. For example, a scoop of powdered electrolyte supplement contains 14 mg of sodium,11 compared to the 97mg available in a dash of table salt.12 An athlete concerned about maintaining adequate sodium levels during their exercise program can focus including naturally sodium-rich foods to their pre-workout meal, and focusing on the main principles of the Paleo diet. Our favorite sodium-rich and Paleo foods include:13

  • 1 large celery stalk (50 mg)
  • 1 beet (65 mg)
  • 4 oz. lamb chop (65 mg)
  • 4 oz. chicken breast (70 mg)
  • 4 oz. grass-fed ground beef (75 mg)
  • 1 cup of spinach (125 mg)
  • 1 cup of Swiss chard (300 mg)

By simply following a Paleo diet, focused on eating a wide variety of mineral rich vegetables, animal organs, and bone broth will supply the necessary nutrients to maintain adequate sodium levels, for both the weekend warrior and the elite endurance athlete under most training conditions. Traditional hunter-gathers participate in rigorous and demanding physical activities required by their hunting, gathering, and foraging lifestyles without needing to supplement their diets with table salt, or electrolyte supplements, to meet their sodium requirements. Dietary sodium is not quite the villain he has been made out to be. However, we don’t need to overcompensate with sodium-rich supplements when a regular Paleo diet offers enough of this essential nutrient to support most individuals, even those who are avid exercisers.

References

1. Mattes, R. D., and D. Donnelly. “Relative contributions of dietary sodium sources.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 10.4 (1991): 383-393.

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. “Usual sodium intakes compared with current dietary guidelines—United States, 2005-2008.” MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 60.41 (2011): 1413.

3. Brodal, Per. The central nervous system: structure and function. Oxford University Press, 2004.

4. Blaustein, M. P. “Sodium ions, calcium ions, blood pressure regulation, and hypertension: a reassessment and a hypothesis.” American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology 232.5 (1977): C165-C173.

5. Noakes, T. D., et al. “The incidence of hyponatremia during prolonged ultraendurance exercise.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 22.2 (1990): 165-170.

6. Godek, S. Fowkes, A. R. Bartolozzi, and J. J. Godek. “Sweat rate and fluid turnover in American football players compared with runners in a hot and humid environment.” British journal of sports medicine 39.4 (2005): 205-211.

7. Noakes, Timothy D. “The hyponatremia of exercise.” International journal of sport nutrition 2.3 (1992): 205-228.

8. Stofan, John R., et al. “Sweat and sodium losses in NCAA football players: a precursor to heat cramps?.” International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 15.6 (2005): 641.

9. Merson, Stuart J., Ronald J. Maughan, and Susan M. Shirreffs. “Rehydration with drinks differing in sodium concentration and recovery from moderate exercise-induced hypohydration in man.” European journal of applied physiology 103.5 (2008): 585-594.

10. Murray, Robert. “The effects of consuming carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages on gastric emptying and fluid absorption during and following exercise.” Sports Medicine 4.5 (1987): 322-351.

11. Available at: //nutritiondata.self.com/facts/beverages/9232/2. Accessed on October 7, 2015.

12. Avaialble at: //nutritiondata.self.com/facts/spices-and-herbs/216/2. Accessed on October 7, 2015.

13. //nutritiondata.self.com/

Paleo Budget | The Paleo Diet

For a nutritional concept to gain traction and remain relevant, nothing matters more than its ability to generate cold, hard cash. In the past, this usually meant governments (and their allied health institutions) would promote certain theories (e.g. the low-fat theory of cardiovascular disease), thereby creating consumer demand, and food manufacturers would respond, formulating products to meet that demand. Whether or not the theories were scientifically sound was relatively unimportant.

In the future, this demand creation model will reverse. Consumers will access scientifically sound nutrition advice, either directly through scientific journals or via independent health advocates, educators, and journalists. This will create demand, which suppliers will meet. Whether or not governments align themselves with scientifically sound nutrition will be somewhat inconsequential.

A monumental new study supports the above prediction while implying the future of Paleo is secure, at least for the next 15 years. Last week, the market research wing of Switzerland’s second largest bank, Credit Suisse, published an impactful analysis called, “Fat: The New Health Paradigm,” in which they project global macronutrient consumption trends for the next 15 years. Specifically, they expect saturated fat and total fat consumption to increase, omega-6 consumption to decrease, and carbohydrate consumption to decrease.[1]

In other words, consumers’ attitudes toward core aspects of the Paleo diet will solidify, thereby creating demand for healthy, high-fat, Paleo-oriented products. According to Stefano Natella, Global Head of Equity Research at Credit Suisse and an author of the study, savvy investors should be lining up behind businesses that understand these forthcoming trends.

“We believe that consumers are at a turning point and this has distinct implications for investors. The report’s conclusion is simple – natural unprocessed fats are healthy and are integral to transforming our society into one that focuses on developing and maintaining healthy individuals.”[2]

Key findings of the study include the following (note: all changes are per capita):

  • Globally, fat consumption will increase from its current per capita average of 26% of total calories to 31% by 2030.
  • In the US, fat consumption will increase from its current 40% of total calories to 47%.
  • Globally, saturated fat will increase from 9.4% of total calories to 12.7%.
  • Omega-6 consumption will decrease from 6% of total calories to 5.4%.
  • Carbohydrates will decrease from 60% to 55%.
  • Red meat consumption will increase 23% by 2030.
  • Egg consumption will increase 4% per year and by 2030, the average person will consume nearly 300 eggs per year (or 350 per year in the US, compared to the current 235).

During the past century, dietary guidelines restrictive of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol were issued to 220 million US citizens in 1977 and 56 million UK citizens in 1983. According to a systematic review and meta-analysis of research available during those years, neither the US nor the UK guidelines were supported by randomized controlled trials.[3] During the ensuing decades, food companies got rich selling low-fat foods, but only because consumers genuinely believed the low-fat dogma their government’s were propagating.

What if consumers had widespread access to information showing the guidelines were (and continue to be) wrong? Would they change their behavior? Would they alter their demands? Would food companies respond? According to the Credit Suisse report, yes. Consumers are becoming more educated about nutrition and food manufacturers are keenly watching. A lucrative new market is in the works. For the future, the smart money is on Paleo and otherwise healthy food.

REFERENCES

[1] Credit Suisse AG. (September 17, 2015). “Fat: The New Health Paradigm.”

[2] Press release. (September 17, 2015). “Credit Suisse Publishes Report on Evolving Consumer Perceptions about Fat,” PR Newswire.

[3] Zoe Harcombe, et al. (Feb. 2015). “Evidence from randomised controlled trials did not support the introduction of dietary fat guidelines in 1977 and 1983: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Open Heart, 2(1).

Nutrient Deficiencies and Supplementation | The Paleo Diet

I was recently asked by a Natuopathic Doctor (ND) whether supplements should be prescribed to help patients achieve certain therapeutic effects that may not be achieved through diet alone. In regards to vitamin, mineral and nutritional supplements I believe that most people following a traditional western junk food diet or a vegetarian/vegan diet will ultimately become nutrient deficient or nutrient impaired. Over the course of years, decades and lifetimes, these nutrient impairments and deficiencies will promote increased morbidity (disease incidence) and mortality (death rates).

Clearly, overt nutrient deficiency diseases such as scurvy (lack of vitamin C), pellagra (lack of niacin or vitamin B3), and beriberi (lack of thiamine or vitamin B1) ultimately can be fatal. However, in the western world we rarely or never see these potentially fatal nutrient related diseases. What clinicians often see are nutrient insufficiencies that promote obesity, ill health and disease. In regards to health in the western world, it is probably more important to focus upon the foods that we should avoid (modern processed foods) than upon the foods that we should eat.

My point is that anyone consuming a contemporary “Paleo Diet” will never become deficient in these or any other nutrient. In fact, data from our laboratory indicates that modern diets based upon Stone Age hunter-gatherer food groups (fresh fruits, vegetables, grass produced meats, organ meats, fish, seafood, free ranging eggs, and nuts) are incredibly nutrient dense1, 2 and far surpass the DRI of governmental recommendations for the 13 nutrients most lacking in the US diet.1, 2 Accordingly, no supplementation is required of people who are adherent to modern diets which emulate the food groups our ancestors ate.

A few key caveats should be mentioned:

  1. Most westerners, particularly those living at northern latitudes, do not receive sufficient sunlight exposure required for our bodies to produce adequate blood concentrations of vitamin D. Hence, I recommend vitamin D3 supplementation (at least 2,000 IU or more daily) for people unable to get out into the sun on a regular basis.
  1. Our hunter-gatherer ancestors consumed the entire carcass (brains, liver, marrow, gonads, etc.) of the terrestrial and aquatic animals they killed — accordingly these foods are rich sources of long chain omega 3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA). If patients do not or have not consumed fatty fish (salmon, mackerel, sardines, and/or herring) regularly, then I recommend these people should supplement with fish oil.
  1. People who have practiced a vegetarian and/or vegan diet for long periods of time will certainly be deficient in a wide variety of nutrients.3 Accordingly, health care practitioners advising their patients should require a broad panel of blood parameters from a reliable laboratory and provide nutrient prescriptions based upon individual nutrient deficiencies or insufficiencies. However, the best clinical strategy is to prescribe a diet rich in these nutrients (ergo the Paleo Diet). Nutrient deficiencies or insufficiencies rapidly disappear when people stop consuming nutrient poor foods (refined sugars, refined grains, refined vegetable oils, salted foods, processed foods, whole grain cereals, refined cereals, high glycemic load carbohydrates and legumes). Hence, prescriptions of supplements by health care practitioners should typically involve the short term (months) and never the long term, once nutrient dense diets are adopted by your patients.

Cordially,

Loren Cordain, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus

 

REFERENCES

1. Cordain L, Eaton SB, Sebastian A, et al. Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(2):341-354.

2. Cordain L. The Nutritional Characteristics of a Contemporary Diet Based Upon Paleolithic Food Groups. JANA. 2002;5(3):15-24.

3. Cordain, L. “Vegetarianism Can Be Hazardous to Your Health.” The Paleo Answer: 7 Days to Lose Weight, Feel Great, Stay Young. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. 45-71. Print.

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