Tag Archives: fish

Bucket of Fish


Anyone concerned about climate change should pay attention…and that means you…and you…and you too! Yes, we all must be concerned about climate change, regardless of whether it is a result of natural climatic cyclicality, or because of human activity.

OK, I’m going to get off of the fence on this one and say it’s man-made—caused by human activities. I usually try to stay neutral because I’m not a climatologist. But, as a scientist, I am compelled by recent evidence that strongly suggests the contribution of greenhouse gases to global warming and climate change.

And this problem is only accentuated by the fact that, because of increasing population, we will need more and more food to satisfy us. About 10 billion people will live on the planet in 2050—up from the current 7.5 billion1. So, a reasonable person would think, well, it’s one-third more people, so we need one-third more food. Not so.

The World Resources Institute paints a rather solemn picture of our dietary future in a recent report without action on our part1. Scarcity of food calories, insufficient land for agriculture, and a significant increase in greenhouse gas emissions are just some of the challenges we face.

According to a recent article on CNN2 and quoting calculations from the World Resources Institute, the demand for food will increase by more than 50 percent, given the higher average standard of living that is expected to exist in 30 years.

The article goes on to say that beef production accounts for 41 percent of livestock greenhouse emissions, and 14.5 percent of emissions overall. The suggestion in the article is that Americans need to eat less beef—and for that matter, dairy as well (you get dairy from cows; they all eat the same stuff.)

Well, I will put myself out on a limb here and say, the chance of that happening is about as likely as Americans giving up cars. It’s not going to happen! While per capita consumption may fall, total consumption will rise with the increasing population. As the advertising slogan says, “Beef: It’s what’s for dinner.”

Making things worse is all the space that cattle need and use. If we keep on the current path with beef, we will need additional space – the equivalent size of India to accommodate our tastes and demand1. That’s quite frightening, considering additional arable space of that magnitude simply does not exist!

Wait! There’s more bad news! (Spoiler alert: There’s good news at the end.)

Beef cattle and all ruminant cattle have the nasty habit of the expelling methane gas as they digest their food. We continually hear about carbon dioxide (CO2) as the preeminent greenhouse gas that we need to control. But methane is 80 times more efficient at trapping heat in our atmosphere than carbon dioxide3.

Here’s how dire our situation may be. Two scientists actually propose turning atmospheric methane into carbon dioxide because of the beneficial trade-off in heat-trapping capability3. Under our current circumstances, that seems very reasonable. How freaky is that? This is the corner into which we have painted ourselves!

While I believe the total consumption of beef and dairy will continue to rise on an absolute basis, I do think per capita consumption will fall, based on what appears to be people’s “new-found” appetite for all things vegetarian, and the unwavering increase in demand for fish and seafood4. I want to focus on the second part of that equation.

We have known for a long time that fish and shellfish are the champs at converting food to edible flesh—better than chickens, better than hogs, and certainly better than cattle5. On average, finfish and shellfish convert feed at a rate of about 1.5 kg of feed for every kg of live fish. Chickens and other terrestrial livestock—especially cattle—don’t stand a chance of beating fish at this game. The best beef cattle can do is about 6 to 1 (usually worse at 8 or 10 to 1 or higher), and that’s horrible.

You probably wonder how fish make feed conversion look so easy. It all boils down to their environment. Finfish and shellfish “decided” evolutionarily that maintaining a constant body temperature is too difficult and too energetically costly in water. Only very large marine mammals with much smaller surface to volume ratios (heat loss occurs much more slowly) such as whales and seals can maintain body temperature and that requires the help of thick layers of insulating fat and blubber. Instead, finfish and shellfish have body temperatures at or very close to their surrounding aquatic environment. That means all the calories they consume can be spent on movement (a very small percentage) and growth, with virtually no consideration for heating or cooling.

Consider this as well. Seventy percent of the earth is covered in water. Why not use some of that space for food production? Land is becoming too precious for us to pasture cattle and other terrestrial livestock at low densities.

Food production in water also provides the added benefit of a three-dimensional space. Not only is the surface available, but the depths below the surface as well.

So, if you look at the situation objectively, it makes the most sense for us to focus our livestock efforts away from terrestrial species and toward aquatic species. In other words, aquaculture. This includes the production of aquatic plants—30 million metric tons in the year most recently reported4. Some marine macroalgae are directly consumed by people, such as nori for sushi, or “sea lettuce.” Other aquatic plants become fertilizer for terrestrial agriculture or cosmetics, and some provide protein and fat extracts for animal feeds6.

It’s time for us to develop our planet and the resources we require in more imaginative, innovative, and sustainable ways. In all likelihood, our long-term survival as a species depends on it.



1Searchinger, T., R. Waite, C. Hanson, and J. Ranganathan. 2018. Synthesis report: creating a sustainable food future: a menu of solutions to feed nearly 10 billion people by 2050. World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C. 92pp.

2Christensen, J. 2019. To help save the planet, cut back to a hamburger and a half per week. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/07/17/health/beef-environment-resources-report/index.html

3Jackson, R., and P. Canadell. 2019. A crazy-sounding climate fix. Scientific American 321(2; August):10.

4FAO. 2018. FAO yearbook. Fishery and aquaculture statistics 2016. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/3/i9942t/I9942T.pdf

5Anonymous. 2018. Feed conversion ratio. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feed_conversion_ratio#Beef_cattle

6Chase, C. 2019. Veramaris opens USD 200 million algal oil facility. https://www.seafoodsource.com/news/aquaculture/veramaris-opens-usd-200-million-algal-oil-facility

Bill Manci is president of Fisheries Technology Associates, Inc., a Fort Collins, Colorado-based aquaculture, aquaponics, and fisheries consulting firm.

Who says fishing for trout can only be done in the warmer months of the year?  In Colorado, home of The Paleo Diet®, there’s nothing better than a fresh catch at high altitude in the middle of winter! Check out the photo to the right of Kenny Cordain holding a 14.5-pound wild Mackinaw pulled up through two feet of ice from frozen alpine waters at 9000 feet. Worth all the effort for the high yield of multiple Omega-3 rich fillets to be enjoyed over the next few months.  Trout can be prepared and cooked using a variety of methods. One of our favorite recipes is so fast and easy, you can go from lake to table in record time.


  • 2-3 lbs trout fillets
  • 2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
  • 2 fresh lemons
  • 2 tablespoons unsalted lemon pepper
  • ¼ cup fresh cilantro



Rinse fillets in cold water and pat dry.  Heat olive oil in large fry pan over medium heat.  Place fillets in pan skin side down. Slice one of the lemons in half and squeeze juice evenly over fillets.  Slice the 2nd lemon into 1/8 inch slices, removing seeds.  Place lemon slices over fillets. Sprinkle with lemon pepper and cook until fillets are cooked ¾ through.  With large spatula, carefully turn fish and continue cooking. Once the fish has lost its pink color and flakes easily, remove from heat.  Sprinkle fresh cilantro over fillets before serving.

Serves 4.


Memorial Day Paleo Grilling Marinade | The Paleo Diet
With Memorial Day just around the corner, it’s time to start planning your menu.  What better way to prepare a Paleo-approved feast than to cook your meats over an open flame, just like our Paleolithic ancestors may have done?

While a simple, grass-fed rib eye works perfectly, it’s fun, tasty and healthy to add some zest by way of marinades, too.

Commercially available preparations that are suitable to a Paleo, clean-living approach are few and far between.  Most are laden with corn syrup, stabilizer gums and artificial sweeteners, coloring and flavorings. Another common offender found in bottled marinades is soy.  High in antinutrient content, soy is often added because it contains glutamic acid, which acts a chemical tenderizing agent.  A definite must-skip!

Making marinades at home is the way to go.  Cost effective, quick and easy to execute, it can be as simple as throwing a few of your favorite ingredients into your food processor and whizzing up a delightful flavor profile.

Here are a few Paleo grilling marinade ideas that will cater to everyone, whether you prefer fish, savory meat or a hint of sweetness with your protein.

No need to choose just one for your holiday barbecue; since they’re so fast to prepare, you can serve all three!



The key to marinating fish is that less is more; plan on a maximum of half an hour for most fillets and possibly up to an hour for hearty steaks like salmon.  Even though we avoid acid such as vinegar when following a Paleo diet, even citric acid found in lemon, limes and oranges could actually cook the fish before it even hits the grill!


  • 1 cup coconut oil, melted
  • Juice from ½ freshly squeezed Meyer lemon
  • 1 1⁄2 
tablespoons honey
  • 1” fresh ginger root
  • 3⁄4 
teaspoon paprika*
  • 1⁄2-1 
teaspoon fresh ground black pepper*
  • 1 
pinch crushed red chili flakes*
  • 6 
garlic cloves
  • 4 
scallions, finely chopped


1. Combine all but scallions in food processor

2. Whiz to combine until uniform consistency is reached

3. Allow cool to room temperature then spread onto flesh side of skin-on wild fish

4. Place in bowl and allow to rest for 30 minutes prior to cooking in grill basket

5. Scatter scallions on top and enjoy!


Memorial Day Paleo Grilling Marinade | The Paleo Diet

While olive oil is clearly one of the healthiest fats we can consume, cooking it at a high temp such as on the barbecue can cause it to oxidize, creating free radicals.  Rather than risking it, swap it out for a Paleo grilling friendly fat like duck fat, which can sustain higher temps!


  • Juice from two freshly squeezed limes
  • 3 Tablespoons duck fat
  • 1 Tablespoon lemon juice, preferably fresh squeezed
  • 1 teaspoon fresh ground black pepper*
  • 1 teaspoon cumin
  • 4 cloves fresh garlic
  • 1 Tablespoon Hungarian paprika*
  • 2 shallots
  • 1 teaspoon thyme


1. Combine all ingredients in food processor and combine until a uniform consistency is reached.

2. Spread throughout over grass fed meat of your choosing, cover, and allow to marinate 12 – 24 hours.

3. Be sure to bring to room temperature by removing from the fridge 30 minutes prior to cooking time; cooking proteins that are too cold will result in uneven cooking.


Memorial Day Paleo Grilling Marindates | The Paleo Diet
Looking for a little bit of sweet with your savory?   No need to smother on the ketchup or dollop on the jelly. This marinade does the trick all on its own, thanks to a little bit of orange!


  • 1 navel orange, juiced, plus one teaspoon zest
  • 1 cup coconut oil, melted
  • 1 Tablespoon fresh oregano
  • Juice from one freshly squeezed lime
  • 1 jalapeno fresh, seeds removed*
  • 2 garlic cloves
  • 1/2 cup fresh cilantro leaves


1. Combine all ingredients in food processor and combine until a uniform consistency is reached.

2. Spread throughout over grass fed meat of your choosing, cover, and allow to marinate 12 – 24 hours. Also works well with pasture raised pork.

3. Bring to room temperature before cooking.

*Pepper and pepper products should be avoided by anyone following a Paleo Autoimmune Protocol

5 Tips for Eating Paleo on a Budget | The Paleo Diet

The Paleo Diet is sometimes dismissed as elitist and only for those who can afford daily prime mignon. This criticism stems from a wider misconception that Paleo is “meat-only” or “meat heavy.” Indeed, the Paleo diet does include appreciable amounts of animal foods, but eating Paleo doesn’t require eating the most expensive varieties of animal foods. Our ancestors were extremely efficient, eating animals and fish from nose to tail, leaving nothing wasted. We can and should emulate this approach, not only because it ensures balanced nutrition, but also because it’s more economical.

So, if you are trying to make Paleo work within the confines of a limited budget or you have several hungry children to feed and wonder whether you can afford a Paleo lifestyle, here are five key tips for minimizing food expenses while maximizing nutrition and deliciousness.


You might have one in your garage or closet. Market research firm NPD Group estimates that 83% of Americans own slow cookers (also known as crock pots), but only half use them regularly.1 In the UK, slow cooker sales rose 55% between 2012 –2014.2

Not only is slow cooking extremely delicious and convenient, it’s also very economical. A slow cooked stew might require six to eight hours, but its electricity costs are comparable to those of a light bulb. Electric ovens, on the other hand, are more energy intensive, averaging between 2 and 2.2 kWh. Slow cookers average around 0.09 kWh, according to the Centre for Sustainable Energy.3 What does this mean? In the US, the national average electricity cost is approximately $0.12 cents per kWh. Operating the oven for one hour, therefore, costs around $0.25, whereas operating a slow cooker for eight hours costs only $0.09.


Another advantage of slow cooking is that tougher cuts of meat become naturally tenderized. You wouldn’t want to cook oxtail, skirt, flank, shin, or chuck steaks on the grill, but slow cooked for hours, these cuts are outstanding. They typically have more fat and more cartilage. Bone-in cuts also have marrow. All these elements add flavor and depth to your stews. Many cuts of lamb and pork are also incredible slow cooked, and aren’t marked up nearly as much as other cuts of meat. You can easily cut your meat costs by 50%+ compared to the more expensive, quick-cooking cuts.


The irony of organ meat is that despite being the most nutrient dense foods by far, they are typically also the most inexpensive. Liver, for example, might cost you around $5 or $6 per pound. By including organ meats in your diet, you’ll save money while greatly boosting your nutrient intake.


Some often balk at paying $3 for that organic avocado when the conventional one costs only $1.50. While we strongly recommend buying organic produce, if you have a limited budget, the Environmental Working Group offers their excellent Shopper’s Guide to Pesticides in Produce, showing which fruits and vegetables to always buy organic and for which conventional is probably adequate.


Sardines, anchovies, mackerel, and other small, oily fish are relatively inexpensive, delicious, and easy to prepare. Fish is a vital component of the Paleo diet, and you can still meet nutritional requirements and enjoy fish without buying expensive wild salmon or wild sea bass. These fish are rich in omega-3 and won’t break your bank. But, buy them fresh, not preserved in cans.

Christopher James Clark, B.B.A.

Nutritional Grail

Christopher James Clark | The Paleo Diet TeamChristopher James Clark, B.B.A. is an award-winning writer, consultant, and chef with specialized knowledge in nutritional science and healing cuisine. He has a Business Administration degree from the University of Michigan and formerly worked as a revenue management analyst for a Fortune 100 company. For the past decade-plus, he has been designing menus, recipes, and food concepts for restaurants and spas, coaching private clients, teaching cooking workshops worldwide, and managing the kitchen for a renowned Greek yoga resort. Clark is the author of the critically acclaimed, award-winning book, Nutritional Grail.


[1] Carter, N. (February 25, 2009). Slow cookers have evolved over the decades. The LA Times.

[2] Weatherill, E. (October 4, 2013). Slow and pressure cookers find favour. The BBC.

[3] Christie, S. (November 22, 2013). ‘How much cheaper is a slow cooker than an oven?’ The Telegraph.

Seafood Mercury Concerns Subside Amid New Research | The Paleo Diet

Fish and other marine life have been integral to human diets since the Paleolithic era. Some researchers even speculate that these foods “made us human” by enabling the rapid expansion of grey matter in the cerebral cortex. For three million years of evolution during the time of Australopithecus, brain capacity remained constant, but then curiously doubled during a one-million-year period between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens.1 The reasons for this great expansion are not entirely known, but increased dietary omega-3 from fish and shellfish was likely involved.

Fish consumption remains critically important today, but comes with complications unimaginable to our distant ancestors. Industrial pollution has greatly increased environmental mercury, much of which ends up in oceans and lakes, and finally, in small amounts, in the bodies of fish. In higher amounts, mercury is toxic and is especially problematic for developing babies. For years, the FDA was advising pregnant women to limit their fish consumption during pregnancy, but last year, they issued a draft revision encouraging prenatal fish consumption.2 This draft, which will eventually replace their previous recommendations, reflects a growing awareness, seen in the scientific literature, that fish is essential for developing babies and contains nutrients that limit, or even counter, the potentially harmful effects of mercury.

Recently published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, a new study, representing 30 years of research in the Seychelles, is one of the longest and largest population studies regarding seafood and mercury.3 The Seychelles is a nation of islands clustered together in the Indian Ocean, where residents consume 10 times as much seafood as do Europeans and Americans, making it an ideal place to study the long-term impact of mercury exposure via seafood. The researchers concluded that high fish consumption by pregnant mothers, as much as 12 meals per week (the FDA recommends three), does not cause developmental problems in children.

To the contrary, fish is extremely beneficial for development, and contains special nutrients that protect against mercury. Lead author Dr. Sean Strain explained, “This research provided us the opportunity to study the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFAs] on development and their potential to augment or counteract the toxic properties of mercury.”4 Mercury is thought to damage the brain through oxidation and corresponding inflammation. Fish are rich in omega-3 PUFAs, which prevent inflammation, as opposed to omega-6 PUFAs, which promote inflammation. This was reflected in the study whereby children of mothers who had higher omega-6 blood levels performed worse on tests designed to measure motor skills.

This study builds upon an impressive body of research conducted by Dr. Nicholas Ralston and colleagues at the University of North Dakota. Ralston has demonstrated that selenium also protects against mercury toxicity and that foods with relatively higher amounts of selenium with respect to mercury, pose neither developmental nor neurological risks based on mercury toxicity.5 “This may explain,” Ralston says, “why studies of maternal populations exposed to foods that contain Hg [mercury] in molar excess of Se [selenium], such as shark or pilot whale meats, have found adverse child outcomes, but studies of populations exposed to MeHg [methylmercury] by eating Se-rich ocean fish observe improved child IQs instead of harm.”6

The vast majority of commonly consumed fish and shellfish contain far more selenium relative to mercury and many have significant amounts of omega-3 PUFAs. This means that fish and shellfish, two important components of the Paleo diet, should not be limited nor discontinued based on mercury concerns. Whether for pregnant women, babies, children, or adults, we encourage you to keep seafood on the menu.

Christopher James Clark, B.B.A.

Nutritional Grail

Christopher James Clark | The Paleo Diet TeamChristopher James Clark, B.B.A. is an award-winning writer, consultant, and chef with specialized knowledge in nutritional science and healing cuisine. He has a Business Administration degree from the University of Michigan and formerly worked as a revenue management analyst for a Fortune 100 company. For the past decade-plus, he has been designing menus, recipes, and food concepts for restaurants and spas, coaching private clients, teaching cooking workshops worldwide, and managing the kitchen for a renowned Greek yoga resort. Clark is the author of the critically acclaimed, award-winning book, Nutritional Grail.


[1] Bradbury, J. (May 2011). Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA): An Ancient Nutrient for the Modern Human Brain. Nutrients, 3(5). Retrieved from //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257695/

[2] U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (June 2014). Fish: What Pregnant Women and Parents Should Know. Draft Updated Advice by FDA and EPA. Retrieved from //www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/Metals/ucm393070.htm

[3] Strain, JJ, et al. (January 2015). Prenatal exposure to methyl mercury from fish consumption and polyunsaturated fatty acids: associations with child development at 20 mo of age in an observational study in the Republic of Seychelles. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 101(1). Retrieved from //ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2015/01/21/ajcn.114.100503

[4] University of Rochester Medical Center. (January 21, 2015). Fatty acids in fish may shield brain from mercury damage. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/01/150121144835.htm

[5] Ralston, NV and Raymond, NJ. (November 2010). Dietary selenium’s protective effects against methylmercury toxicity. Toxicology, 278(1). Retrieved from //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20561558

[6] Ibid, Ralston.

Selecting Seafood for Health and Sustainability | The Paleo Diet

There’s no question that seafood is a great source of protein and omega-3 fatty acids, and that it should form an integral part of the Paleo Diet. But seafood doesn’t thrive in polluted waters, overfished waters, or in habitats damaged by fishing gear. So to get the good without the bad—and to ensure we have it for years to come—we need to know which species have the holy trinity of seafood: sustainable, safe, and nutritious.


Sustainably caught fish may seem like a nice-to-have, but it should really be on par with nutrition for importance when selecting seafood. Not only do we want our food to be harvested or caught in its highest nutritive state, we want that to continue indefinitely. It hasn’t always been that way, but more and more fisheries are making sustainability a reality by considering the health of ecosystems and fish populations as well as their profits. Seafood Watch® makes science-based recommendationsfor sustainable seafood.1,2,3 Here’s their current list of best choices, good alternatives, and choices to avoid.

Selecting Seafood for Health and Sustainability

The seafood recommendations in this guide are credited to the Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation ©2014. All rights reserved.

Download the PDF


In the seafood world, mercury, dioxins, and PCBs are the usual suspects when it comes to contamination. They’re not normally features of a “healthy and abundant stock” which is a fundamental criterion for sustainability1—so if you’re choosing sustainable, you’re likely choosing safe too. In addition, SeafoodWatch® posts health alerts if there are specific concerns for human health from a fishery.

Mercury, however, is a changing story. Mercury accumulates in fat tissues of large, long-lived predatory fish or shellfish, ultimately ending up on our dinner plates. We’ve been cautioned to limit these species in our diets, but surprisingly, that’s not the whole story. Mercury readily and irreversibly binds to selenium,4 which means that as long as the fish you’re eating has more selenium than mercury, your body won’t actually be retaining the mercury you ingest. And since the oceans are full of selenium, most ocean fish are perfectly safe to eat.5,6 Simply avoid shark and limit swordfish, tilefish, and king mackerel or use this infographic to moderate your consumption . Also keep in mind that in freshwater, mercury and selenium levels vary greatly with the composition of the surrounding soil. Check with your local authorities for health alerts.


Fish are great sources of vitamins and minerals as well as protein, but the biggest benefit from eating fish is the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA.7 Anyone who’s had king salmon and a haddock fillet can tell you, however, that all fish are not created equal when it comes to fat—and they’re not all created equal when it comes to omega-3 to omega-6 ratios either—and that matters! Here’s some nutritional data from the USDA for some popular fish and shellfish.6

Sustainable Choices in SeafoodSustainable Choices in Seafood

Highlighted numbers in the first four columns are amounts greater than 1 g/100 g; highlighted numbers in the last column are the fish with ratios greater than 5. A few things jump out.

  • Total fat isn’t everything: the number of fish hitting 1 g/100 g decreases as we move from total fat to polyunsaturated fat to omega-3s.
  • Atlantic mackerel, chinook salmon, herring, swordfish, and Bluefin tuna have high total fat and great omega-3/omega-6 ratios.
  • Only farmed Atlantic salmon has more than 1 g/100 g of omega-6s.
  • All but tilapia have an omega-3/omega-6 ratio greater than 1.
  • There doesn’t seem to be a relationship between total fat and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio. There are high fat options with low ratios (Atlantic salmon) and high ratio options with lower fat (squid).

Sustainable + Safe + Nutritious

So can we have our fish and eat it too? Yes! There is an impressively wide array of sustainable options to choose from, and we can assume that they’re safe choices, not only because they’re sustainable, but because they’re high in selenium. Many of those sustainable options are also fatty fish with great omega-3/omega-6 ratios (anything above 1 is great). SeafoodWatch® compiled their “Super Green List” based on these criteria, but let’s look at the poor performers to compare.

  • Atlantic salmon: not sustainably caught, high omega-6s, ratio close to 1
  • Bluefin tuna: great fat profile, great ratio, but not sustainable
  • Tilapia: sustainably farmed, but lower in fat, ratio less than 1
  • Sharks: more mercury than selenium, not sustainably caught

The bottom line: while some seafood looks good in the nutritional breakdown, from a sustainability standpoint, some species may be better than others. So, eat your recommended portion of omega-3s, but choose options that tick all the boxes for your health as well as the ocean’s.

Andrea MooreAndrea Moore has dipped her toes in a lot of ponds, lakes, and oceans over the years. She has adventured around the world doing odd jobs and studying biology, languages, and sailing.

Now surprisingly settled in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Andrea’s still up to a bit of everything as a marine biologist, a writer, and an editor, living the Paleo lifestyle.

fix-logoFix.com is a lifestyle blog devoted to bringing you expert content to make your life easier. From products, to food, to fishing, to projects, we’ll be providing you with a daily fix of content from our experienced and knowledgeable team of writers.



1. Monterey Bay Aquarium. Developing Seafood Watch® Recommendations. Version: January 23, 2014.

2. Monterey Bay Aquarium. Seafood Watch® Criteria for Aquaculture. Accessed: September 5, 2014.

3. Monterey Bay Aquarium. Seafood Watch ® Criteria for Fisheries. Version: March 31, 2014.

4. Ralston NVC, Ralston CR, Blackwell 3rd JL, Raymond LJ. Dietary and tissue selenium in relation to methylmercury toxicity. NeuroToxicology 2008;29(5):802-11.

5. U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. 7th Edition, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, December 2010.

6. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Nutrient Data Laboratory. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 27. Version Current: August 2014.

7. Kidd PM. Omega-3 DHA and EPA for cognition, behavior, and mood: clinical findings and structural-functional synergies with cell membrane phospholipids. Altern Med Rev 2007;12(3):207-27.

Paleo Red Snapper with Zucchini and Fennel Seeds

Perfect for a busy midweek Paleo dinner, this lovely dish takes but 5 minutes to prepare and 30 minutes to cook. Red snapper is a deliciously reliable whitefish that takes on a flakey texture when cooked. In addition to reducing the risk for heart disease, regular consumption of fish for omega-3 fatty acids may be helpful in preventing, treating, or improving a wide variety of diseases and disorders, including but not limited to virtually all inflammatory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disorders, periodontal disease, many types of cancers, psoriasis, insulin resistance, type 1 and 2 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis.1 If you prefer to use other whitefish, like cod, halibut, and bass, they too work great with this recipe.

Paired with the sublime flavor combination of garlic, tomato, and fennel seeds, each ingredient boasts impressive health properties. The health benefits of including garlic and tomato are well known and well documented, but what about the humble fennel seed?

A 2011 study published in the Journal of Food Medicine tested various compounds contained in fennel seeds for their anticancer properties. Fennel seed methanolic extract (FSME) was found to have remarkable anticancer potential against particular breast cancer and liver cancer cells.2 The researchers also posited that FSME could be used as a safe and natural food preservative based on its ability to improve oxidative stability of fatty acids.

Fennel seeds have also been studied with regards to osteoporosis. A 2012 study published in the International Journal of Molecular Medicine concluded that fennel seeds, consumed in low doses, have the potential to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women.3 This is due to their ability to inhibit osteoclasts. So besides their unique culinary properties, fennel seeds also have impressive healing capabilities. We recommend you include them, when applicable, in your Paleo cooking.

Red snapper with zucchini and fennel seeds is a great recipe to get you started.


Serves 2-3

  • 1 lb red snapper fillets
  • 2 cloves garlic
  • 2 small zucchinis
  • 3 tomatoes
  • 1 tbsp olive oil
  • tbsp fennel seeds
  • 1 thyme, finely chopped


6 item(s) « 1 of 6 »
*Use the arrows in the lower gray bar of this image-viewer to move left or right through the directions. We recommend using one of following approved browsers for optimal viewing quality: Mozilla Firefox, Safari, or Google Chrome.


Christopher James Clark, B.B.A.
Nutritional Grail

Christopher James Clark | The Paleo Diet TeamChristopher James Clark, B.B.A. is an award-winning writer, consultant, and chef with specialized knowledge in nutritional science and healing cuisine. He has a Business Administration degree from the University of Michigan and formerly worked as a revenue management analyst for a Fortune 100 company. For the past decade-plus, he has been designing menus, recipes, and food concepts for restaurants and spas, coaching private clients, teaching cooking workshops worldwide, and managing the kitchen for a renowned Greek yoga resort. Clark is the author of the critically acclaimed, award-winning book, Nutritional Grail.

See more recipes!


1. Cordain, L. (2013). Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content of Fish and Seafood. Retrieved from The Paleo Diet: //thepaleodiet.com/omega-3-fats-fish/

2. Mohamad, RH., et al. (September, 2011). Antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects of methanolic extract and volatile oil of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare). Journal of Food Medicine, 14(9). Retrieved August 6, 2014 from //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21812646

3. Kim, TH., et al. (June, 2012). Potent inhibitory effect of Foeniculum vulgare Miller extract on osteoclast differentiation and ovariectomy-induced bone loss. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 29(6). Retrieved August 6, 2014 from //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22447109

Mimicking Hunter-Gatherers Seasonal Dieting Habits

The best way to spruce up your Paleo menu and learn which foods are in season is to shop at local farmer’s markets, where the food is fresh, comes from nearby farms, and creates good safety net to ensure a higher-than-average quality diet. As Paleo Dieters we aim to closely mimic the diet of our hunter-gatherer ancestors in contemporary society.

In springtime, hunter-gatherers in Israel hunted species that were overly lean and otherwise fat-depleted, they supplemented the fat content of their diets with acorns and nuts.1 While the animal meat to which we have access in modern times isn’t subject to large variations in fat content, we can still benefit from the nutrient-density and healthy fats in nuts.

For many months out of the year, during the wet season, hunting wasn’t productive for the Hadza, so much of their caloric requirements were met by honey.2 Obtaining the honey was no easy feat, often an energy-intensive process, which in some respect justified its consumption. Nowadays, honey is available year-round, and as a sugar-rich food, excess consumption is not recommended. In summertime, when many delicious fruits are in-season, just remember that historically, this change in diet quality was frequently accompanied increased energy expenditure.

The Hiwi, on the other hand, have better success hunting game in the wet season, whereas in the dry season they rely more on fish trapped in small ponds.3 Living in a coastal state, much of the fish to which I have access is consistent year-round; this will certainly be different for mainlanders. However, seafood has been critical throughout human evolution and I see no reason to consume less of it during any particular season.4, 5

With regard to animal foods, I don’t see the seasonal aspect as relevant as it is for plant-based foods. In warmer months, carbohydrate-dense plants are more seasonally available, and even in our modern environment this may well be perfectly fine. While we’re not expending exorbitant amounts of energy acquiring honey, this is still a time of increased physical activity – more time spent playing outside, for example. Also, increased sun exposure translates to increased levels of vitamin D, which have been associated with a wide variety of improved health parameters. So the higher level of dietary carbohydrate at this time of year is matched with increased physical activity and higher levels of vitamin D. If you live somewhere with a frigid season, when you’re trapped indoors with much lower levels of physical activity and sunlight, perhaps a more seasonal approach may be prudent: plants that are more fibrous with less sugar and starches like nuts, mushrooms, spinach and kale, Brussels sprouts, and asparagus.

Some aspects of seasonal dieting remain relevant today, despite the fact that our access to most foods is not seasonally-restricted, regardless of where you live.

William Lagakos, Ph.D.

William Lagakos, Ph.D.Dr. William Lagakos received a Ph.D. in Nutritional Biochemistry and Physiology from Rutgers University where his research focused on dietary fat assimilation and integrated energy metabolism. His postdoctoral research at the University of California, San Diego, centered on obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Dr. William Lagakos has authored numerous manuscripts which have been published in peer-reviewed journals, as well as a non-fiction book titled The Poor, Misunderstood Calorie which explores the concept of calories and simultaneously explains how hormones and the neuroendocrine response to foods regulate nutrient partitioning. He is presently a nutritional sciences researcher, consultant, and blogger.


1. Lev, Efraim. “Mousterian Vegetal Food in Kebara Cave, Mt. Carmel.” Mousterian Vegetal Food in Kebara Cave, Mt. Carmel. Journal of Archaeological Science, Mar. 2005. Web. 12 Aug. 2014.

2. Eaton SB, Eaton SB, 3rd, Konner MJ, Shostak M. An evolutionary perspective enhances understanding of human nutritional requirements. J Nutr. Jun 1996;126(6):1732-1740.

3. Hurtado, A. Magdalena. “Early Dry Season Subsistence Ecology of Cuiva (Hiwi) Foragers of Venezuela – Springer.” Springer. Journal of Human Ecology, 01 June 1987. Web. 07 Aug. 2014.

4. Crawford MA, Broadhurst CL, Guest M, Nagar A, Wang Y, Ghebremeskel K, Schmidt WF. A quantum theory for the irreplaceable role of docosahexaenoic acid in neural cell signalling throughout evolution. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. Jan 2013;88(1):5-13.

5. Cunnane SC, Crawford MA. Energetic and nutritional constraints on infant brain development: Implications for brain expansion during human evolution. J Hum Evol. Jun 10 2014.


Smoked Trout Salad | The Paleo Diet

Congratulations to July’s Recipe Contest Winner Daniel!

A subtle hint of smoky flavor paired with poached quail eggs makes this trout salad a mouth-watering summer dish.


Serves 3-4

  • 2 handfuls Wild Rocket (Arugula)
  • 1 Leek
  • 150ml Coconut cream
  • 1 ½ tbs Organic Raw Nori or Dulse flakes
  • 1 sweet potato
  • ½ bunch Parsley
  • 180ml Extra Virgin olive oil
  • 1 small Lemon
  • 1 Wild Trout
  • 8 Quail eggs


1. Peel the sweet potato then using the peeler make thin slices, the length of the vegetable, and steam these wafers for 90 seconds. Carefully lay the steamed slices on a food dehydrator tray and then dehydrate at 125°F for 2 hours or until crisp. When ready, set aside.

2. Soak wood smoking chips, preferably hickory, in a bowl of water for ½ hour.

3. Pick parsley leaves and put into the blender with 150ml of the Olive oil, ¾ tbs of the Seaweed flakes and the juice of half the lemon. Blend until completely smooth and set aside.

4. Slice the leek down the centre and then cut into 1cm wide semi circles. Wash and then sauté in the remaining Olive oil. Once soft, add the coconut cream and remaining Seaweed flakes and cook down for 2-3 minutes. Cover, set aside and keep warm.

5. Prepare the smoke house as necessary with the drained woodchips and bring to smoking point. Once heavily smoking, adjust the setting so temperature is at 155° F and place the Trout into the smokehouse. Smoke until well cooked, anywhere from 45 minutes to an hour depending on the size of the fish. Allow to cool slightly and then remove the skin, carefully fillet and debone. Remember most of the small trout bones are digestible. Halve each fillet to create 4 evenly sized pieces. Cover and keep warm.

6. In a shallow frypan fill with 1 inch of water and juice the remaining half of the lemon. Gently poach the quail eggs (2-3 minutes) ensuring the yolk remains runny.


  • On a large plate place half a handful of Wild Rocket in the center.
  • Spoon ¼ of the leek mixture (3-4tbs) onto the rocket.
  • Carefully pile a small handful of the sweet potato chips onto the leek.
  • Place a piece of the Smoked Trout onto the chips.
  • Top the Trout with 2 poached quail eggs.
  • Drizzle the parsley oil around the assembled dish, serve and enjoy a combination of rich, earthy, and most importantly tasty flavors.

The Paleo Diet Recipe Library

Wild Game and Trout

If you are lucky enough to experience the high country in the beautiful Rocky Mountains, you will be amazed at the abundance of wildlife that populates this amazing natural area. Hunting in this terrain is a popular means for acquiring wild game in the form of deer and elk. Furthermore, the many rivers and streams are home to a variety of species of fresh trout, sure to delight the avid fisherman. Serve up a combination of deer, elk, and trout for a Paleo feast on a warm summer evening.

Wild Game

Serves 4-6

  • 2 lbs Elk or Deer Meat
  • ½ fresh sweet onion, sliced thin
  • 2 cloves garlic pressed
  • 2 sprigs each – fresh, organic rosemary and thyme
  • 2 fresh organic basil leaves
  • ¼ cup extra virgin olive oil
  • ¼ cup red wine vinegar
  • ¼ cup organic, sulphite-free red wine of your choice


1. Mix all loose ingredients.

2. For elk steaks, add the juice of ½ fresh orange, then slice remaining ½ and set aside.

3. In shallow dish, pour marinade mixture and sliced oranges over elk steaks, making sure all pieces of meat are well coated.

4. Cover with lid or foil and refrigerate for 24 hours.

5. For deer steaks, use the same marinade without the oranges, and add carrots to meat before putting in fridge.

6. Barbeque on low heat until steaks are cooked to your preference.

Baked Wild Trout

Serves 4-6

  • 4 lbs. fresh, wild trout
  • 2 sprigs, fresh dill, finely chopped
  • 4 sprigs fresh cilantro chopped
  • ¼ cup fresh organic, sulphite free sherry wine
  • ½ fresh lemon, juiced
  • ½ fresh lemon sliced into small cubes
  • 1 fresh lemon cut into ¼ inch slices


1. Preheat oven to 350 degrees.

2. Rinse trout thoroughly and place on a large sheet of parchment paper, placed on baking pan.

3. Combine dill, ¾ of cilantro, sherry, lemon juice and cubes in a bowl.

4. Open cavity of trout and stuff evenly with mixture.

5. Close trout and place lemon slices and remaining cilantro along the tops of the trout.

6. Wrap parchment paper around trout and tuck underneath to ensure juices stay sealed in while baking.

7. Bake for 30 minutes, testing with fork to ensure fish is cooked thoroughly.

Lorrie Cordain, M.Ed., Co-Author of The Paleo Diet Cookbook

See more recipes!

Affiliates and Credentials