Tag Archives: dopamine

Could Dopamine Be the Key to Health and Happiness? | Paleo

Ah, the joy of being both happy and healthy. I can bet my last dollar that many reading this would like to find the magic solution to what is for many, a far-reaching statement. While many Paleo followers can ride high on the claim of being healthy, the same cannot be said for many about being happy.

Intellectual scholars have been debating the key to happiness. Research studies found that certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, are key to your happiness.1 While this may sound familiar, understanding the nature in which the brain’s reward center functions will help in processing this information. A recent study conducted in London, and published in the Journal of Neuroscience expands on the role dopamine plays in happiness, as well as in the risks we take.2

OVERVIEW

In this study, 30 healthy people were given the drug levodopa, which is a treatment for Parkinson’s Disease. Levodopa (L-dopa) functions by increasing the amount of dopamine levels in the brain.3 Happiness was measured using functional MRI imagining, to show signals in the area of the brain known as the striatum. This region has substantial dopaminergic input, as a result of increased dopamine receptors.

The individuals were assigned a gambling task, where they had to make choices between safe and risky options. After each choice they were assessed on their level of happiness. In this double-blind placebo-controlled study, the individuals received both levodopa and placebo. When the individuals were given a placebo, the level of happiness was higher after receiving large rewards. On the other hand when given levodopa, the individuals exhibited high levels of happiness regardless of the type of reward, whether small or large.

UNDERSTANDING DOPAMINE

Dopamine is a natural chemical produced in the areas of the brain known as the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental.4 Dopamine not only affects the brain’s reward center, but when you walk and talk, it is the proper balance of dopamine levels in your brain that also controls these functions. An imbalance of dopamine can result in disorders where, for example, patients with the neurological disorder Parkinson’s Disease do not have enough, meanwhile scientists hypothesize excess dopamine can cause schizophrenia.5 Research has also shown an association between drugs that increase dopamine, and addictive behaviors like an increased appetite for food and alcohol.2

PLEASURE CONTROLS

Research shows the presence of dopamine during an imagined event, affects the brain’s expectation of how enjoyable that event will be in the future.5 In order words, make sure your dopamine levels are in check when you’re planning out your next workout or healthy meal. You’ll be pumped for the fun ahead!

PALEO FOODS TO BOOST DOPAMINE PRODUTION

Interestingly enough, research has also shown there are decreased dopamine receptors in overweight individuals.6 Paleo followers can attest that many who adopt a Paleo diet not only see the pounds fall away, but the robust volume of scientific literature also shows how it decreases the risk for the many chronic diseases that plague western civilizations.

There are foods that help in naturally increasing dopamine levels in our brain. Dopamine comes from the amino acid tyrosine. Foods rich in tyrosine include avocados and almonds.7 These foods also contain high levels of antioxidants, are great sources of natural fat, and are no stranger to Paleo dieters. Other foods include eggs, pork, fish, nuts and seeds.8 Just when you thought you knew all the benefits of eating Paleo!

SUMMARY

When you eat right, you win. Stick to Paleo foods rich in tyrosine, lead an active lifestyle, and keep your happiness and health in check. Keep the brain active by solving puzzles, painting, or crafting; all shown to increase dopamine levels.9 While there is no magic solution, there is a scientific backing which works.

 

REFERENCES

[1] Cloud, J. (2009, November 27). Can Dopamine Make Your Future Look Brighter? Retrieved September 15, 2015, from Time: //content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1943224,00.html

[2] Rutledge, R., Skandali, N., Dayan, P., & Dolan, R. (2015). Dopaminergic modulation of decision making and subjective well-being. Journal of Neuroscience, 35, 9811-9822.

[3] Mayo Clinic. (2015). Retrieved Sep 15, 2015, from Carbidopa, Entacapone, And Levodopa (Oral Route): //mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/carbidopa-entacapone-andl-levodopa-oral-route/before-using/drg-20061604

[4] Rutledge, R., Skandali, N., Dayan, P., & Dolan, R. (2015). Dopaminergic modulation of decision making and subjective well-being. Journal of Neuroscience, 35, 9811-9822.

[5] Cloud, J. (2009, November 27). Can Dopamine Make Your Future Look Brighter? Retrieved September 15, 2015, from Time: //content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1943224,00.html

[6] DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory. (2007). Retrieved September 15, 2015, from ScienceDaily: //sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071025091036.htm

[7] University of Maryland Medical Center. (2013, July 16). Tyrosine. Retrieved September 15, 2015, from https://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/tyrosine

[8] //nutritiondata.self.com/

[9] Wilson, J. (2015, January 5). This is your brain on crafting. Retrieved September 15, 2015, from CNN: //www.cnn.com/2014/03/25/health/brain-crafting-benefits/

Boost Your Brain: Dopamine and Diet

There are many benefits of following a Paleo Diet.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6  The majority are aware of the physical effects of moving from a Western diet (full of processed foods, grains and sugar) to a Paleo Diet (rich with nutrients, anti-inflammatory fats, and healthy sources of carbohydrates).7, 8 However, most are likely unaware of the effects of diet on dopamine levels, and your brain.9, 10, 11, 12, 13 Numerous studies have examined the relationship, and all of the studies have fairly interesting results.14, 15, 16, 17, 18 One study showed mice fed a high fat diet during pregnancy had an increased preference for sucrose and fat.19 It must be noted, however, that what researchers refer to as a ‘high fat diet’ is instead a ‘high sugar and high fat diet.’20, 21, 22 On top of this, the diet consisted of poor sources of sugar and fat, not sweet potatoes and coconut oil.23

Boost Your Brain: Dopamine and Diet | The Paleo Diet

Wang, Gene-Jack et al. “Imaging of Brain Dopamine Pathways: Implications for Understanding Obesity.” Journal of addiction medicine 3.1 (2009): 8–18. PMC. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.

Boost Your Brain: Dopamine and Diet | The Paleo Diet

Volkow et al. “Overlapping Neuronal Circuits in Addiction and Obesity: Evidence of Systems Pathology.” Biological Sciences 363.1507 (2008): 3191.

More interesting, however, researchers ultimately found that diet actually altered the gene expression of dopamine and opioid-related genes.24 That is a pretty big find. Another study looked at the effect skipping breakfast had on dopamine levels.25 The authors of this study found breakfasts consumed with normal to higher amounts of protein, had increasingly positive effects on both dopamine secretion and reduced food cravings.

Boost Your Brain: Dopamine and Diet

Ahmad, S. Omar et al. “REDUCED NUMBERS OF DOPAMINE NEURONS IN THE SUBSTANTIA NIGRA PARS COMPACTA AND VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA OF RATS FED AN N-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID-DEFICIENT DIET: A STEREOLOGICAL STUDY.” Neuroscience letters 438.3 (2008): 303–307. PMC. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.

If you’re having a hard time swallowing the idea that diet alters dopamine levels, this was only first “discovered” by researchers in 2003.26 Other researchers have stated that excessive intake of dietary fats leads to diminished brain dopaminergic function.27, 28, 29, 30 What must be noted here, again, is that they are not referring to healthier fats, but rather poor quality ones. By contrast, one can extrapolate that healthy fats (such as those included regularly in a Paleo Diet) will improve, or at the very least normalize, dopamine levels.31, 32, 33

As other researchers have also noted, sugar and fat bingeing have notable differences in addictive-like behavior.34 This, again, suggests we should avoid a Western diet at all costs, especially the unhealthiest versions, if you want to maximize dopaminergic function in the brain. Researchers have also found that the lack of opiate-like withdrawal signs after fat bingeing underscores the importance of opioid systems in differentiating sugars and fats and their subsequent effects on behavior.

While fat may not have the same effects on the brain as sugar,combining the two in one’s diet (especially in their worst forms) is akin to putting your brain in the freezer, or maybe even throwing it out in front of traffic.35, 36, 37 Healthy fats, like the omega-3 fatty acids found in abundance in a Paleo Diet, will help to maximize dopamine levels, as well as neuronal and physiologic functioning.38, 39, 40, 41, 42

Boost Your Brain: Dopamine and Diet

Teegarden, Sarah L., Eric J. Nestler, and Tracy L. Bale. “ΔFosB-Mediated Alterations in Dopamine Signaling Are Normalized by a Palatable High Fat Diet.” Biological psychiatry 64.11 (2008): 941–950. PMC. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.

In summary, proper dopamine levels are vital to leading a healthy life. A Paleo diet helps to optimize dopaminergic and neuronal health, meanwhile providing the multitude of healthful benefits. Check out the brand new The Real Paleo Diet Cookbook and check out over 250 delicious, healthy recipes that will help fuel your brain!

REFERENCES

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[9] Wang GJ, Volkow ND, Thanos PK, Fowler JS. Imaging of brain dopamine pathways: implications for understanding obesity. J Addict Med. 2009;3(1):8-18.

[10] Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Telang F. Overlapping neuronal circuits in addiction and obesity: evidence of systems pathology. Philos Trans R Soc Lond, B, Biol Sci. 2008;363(1507):3191-200.

[11] Berthoud HR. Vagal and hormonal gut-brain communication: from satiation to satisfaction. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008;20 Suppl 1:64-72.

[12] Volkow ND, Wise RA. How can drug addiction help us understand obesity?. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8(5):555-60.

[13] Batterham RL, Ffytche DH, Rosenthal JM, et al. PYY modulation of cortical and hypothalamic brain areas predicts feeding behaviour in humans. Nature. 2007;450(7166):106-9.

[14] Dallman MF, Pecoraro N, Akana SF, et al. Chronic stress and obesity: a new view of “comfort food”. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003;100(20):11696-701.

[15] Adam TC, Epel ES. Stress, eating and the reward system. Physiol Behav. 2007;91(4):449-58.

[16] Rada P, Avena NM, Hoebel BG. Daily bingeing on sugar repeatedly releases dopamine in the accumbens shell. Neuroscience. 2005;134(3):737-44.

[17] Liang NC, Hajnal A, Norgren R. Sham feeding corn oil increases accumbens dopamine in the rat. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;291(5):R1236-9.

[18] Avena NM, Rada P, Hoebel BG. Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2008;32(1):20-39.

[19] Vucetic Z, Kimmel J, Totoki K, Hollenbeck E, Reyes TM. Maternal high-fat diet alters methylation and gene expression of dopamine and opioid-related genes. Endocrinology. 2010;151(10):4756-64.

[20] Gibson SA. Are high-fat, high-sugar foods and diets conducive to obesity?. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 1996;47(5):405-15.

[21] Molteni R, Barnard RJ, Ying Z, Roberts CK, Gómez-pinilla F. A high-fat, refined sugar diet reduces hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neuronal plasticity, and learning. Neuroscience. 2002;112(4):803-14.

[22] Kuo LE, Czarnecka M, Kitlinska JB, Tilan JU, Kvetnanský R, Zukowska Z. Chronic stress, combined with a high-fat/high-sugar diet, shifts sympathetic signaling toward neuropeptide Y and leads to obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1148:232-7.

[23] Axen KV, Dikeakos A, Sclafani A. High dietary fat promotes syndrome X in nonobese rats. J Nutr. 2003;133(7):2244-9.

[24] High-fat diet alters the dopamine and opioid systems: effects across development. International Journal of Obesity Supplements. 2012;:S25.

[25] Hoertel HA, Will MJ, Leidy HJ. A randomized crossover, pilot study examining the effects of a normal protein vs. high protein breakfast on food cravings and reward signals in overweight/obese “breakfast skipping”, late-adolescent girls. Nutr J. 2014;13(1):80.

[26] Montgomery AJ, Mctavish SF, Cowen PJ, Grasby PM. Reduction of brain dopamine concentration with dietary tyrosine plus phenylalanine depletion: an [11C]raclopride PET study. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160(10):1887-9.

[27] Tellez LA, Medina S, Han W, et al. A gut lipid messenger links excess dietary fat to dopamine deficiency. Science. 2013;341(6147):800-2.

[28] Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Telang F, et al. Low dopamine striatal D2 receptors are associated with prefrontal metabolism in obese subjects: possible contributing factors. Neuroimage. 2008;42(4):1537-43.

[29] Wang GJ, Volkow ND, Logan J, et al. Brain dopamine and obesity. Lancet. 2001;357(9253):354-7.

[30] Thanos PK, Michaelides M, Piyis YK, Wang GJ, Volkow ND. Food restriction markedly increases dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) in a rat model of obesity as assessed with in-vivo muPET imaging ([11C] raclopride) and in-vitro ([3H] spiperone) autoradiography. Synapse. 2008;62(1):50-61.

[31] Meguid MM, Fetissov SO, Varma M, et al. Hypothalamic dopamine and serotonin in the regulation of food intake. Nutrition. 2000;16(10):843-57.

[32] Carlin J, Hill-smith TE, Lucki I, Reyes TM. Reversal of dopamine system dysfunction in response to high-fat diet. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21(12):2513-21.

[33] Chalon S, Delion-vancassel S, Belzung C, et al. Dietary fish oil affects monoaminergic neurotransmission and behavior in rats. J Nutr. 1998;128(12):2512-9.

[34] Avena NM, Rada P, Hoebel BG. Sugar and fat bingeing have notable differences in addictive-like behavior. J Nutr. 2009;139(3):623-8.

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[36] Rosales FJ, Reznick JS, Zeisel SH. Understanding the role of nutrition in the brain and behavioral development of toddlers and preschool children: identifying and addressing methodological barriers. Nutr Neurosci. 2009;12(5):190-202.

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[42] Enslen M, Milon H, Malnoë A. Effect of low intake of n-3 fatty acids during development on brain phospholipid fatty acid composition and exploratory behavior in rats. Lipids. 1991;26(3):203-8.

 
 
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