Tag Archives: athletes

Betaine | The Paleo Diet
The modern Paleo Diet is focused on lean meats, but we love vegetables too. However, many Westerners need to beef up their vegetable intake because over 87% of adults are not eating enough of them each day.1 Although, the Paleo Diet favors foods with a lower glycemic impact, 2 you can’t beat the nutritional benefits of beets. They are rich in calcium, iron, magnesium, vitamin C, potassium, manganese, phosphorous, as well as carotene and B complex.3 Beets provide anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and detox support in the body. They also support healthy bile flow,4 stimulate liver cell function, and provide a protective effect for the liver and bile ducts.5

Beets are a great source of betaine, also called betaine anhydrous or trimethylglycine (TMG). Betaine is a substance that’s made in the body that’s required for healthy liver function, cellular reproduction, and to make carnitine.6 Further, there is a growing body of evidence that betaine is an important nutrient for the prevention of chronic disease.7 It is also a metabolite of choline8 and an essential biochemical component of the methionine-homocysteine cycle.9

Specifically, betaine also plays a role in reducing levels of the amino acid homocysteine in the blood.10 Homocysteine is a toxic substance in the body that can lead to osteoporosis and is an indicator of an increased risk of heart disease.11

Beets are a great alternative for endurance athletes looking for a nutrient dense option for post workout food to replenish from workouts.12 Studies have shown that eating beets prior to exercise, led to a 16% increase in workout times.13 They are also rich in antioxidants14 to aid in recovery between exercise sessions. Whether you are an avid exerciser or not, adding beets to your Paleo Diet is a win-win as they are a nutritional powerhouse.

Although typically eaten cooked, beets can also be eaten raw. Thinly slice or grate and serve over dressed lettuce greens. To roast whole beets, place them in a covered roasting pan for 45-60 minutes (until you can pierce them with a fork) in a 375 °F oven. Once cooked, the skin will easily peel away with your fingers.

This hearty, Paleo Roasted Beet and Tomato Soup offers a simple way to introduce cooked beets into your Paleo Diet.  It is a festive, bright dish to commence any holiday meal or as an accompaniment to your favorite Paleo sandwich.

Paleo Roasted Red Beet & Tomato Soup

Paleo Soup | The Paleo Diet

Serves 4


  • 1 tablespoon coconut oil
  • 1 red onion, sliced
  • 1 small carrot, diced
  • 2 (14.5 oz.) cans of no salt added organic diced tomatoes or homemade canned tomatoes
  • 1 large roasted, peeled, red beet (about 2 cups cubed)
  • Black pepper to taste


  1. Sauté the red onion and carrot in the coconut oil until the onions turn translucent and the carrot is soft.
  2. In a blender, combine the diced tomatoes, the cubed roasted beet, and the cooked onion mixture.
  3. Blend until very smooth.
  4. Pour the mixture into a soup pot.
  5. Simmer for 10-20 minutes, season with black pepper to taste and serve!


1. Available at: //epi.grants.cancer.gov/diet/usualintakes/pop/2007-10/. Accessed on November 8, 2015.

2. Cordain, Loren. The Paleo Diet Revised: Lose Weight and Get Healthy by Eating the Foods You Were Designed to Eat. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2010.

3. Available at: //nutritiondata.self.com/facts/vegetables-and-vegetable-products/2348/2. Accessed on November 8, 2015.

4. Gu, X., and D. Li. “Fat nutrition and metabolism in piglets: a review.” Animal Feed Science and Technology 109.1 (2003): 151-170.

5. Kanbak, Güngör, Mine İnal, and Cengiz Bayçu. “Ethanol‐induced hepatotoxicity and protective effect of betaine.” Cell biochemistry and function 19.4 (2001): 281-285.

6. Craig, Stuart AS. “Betaine in human nutrition.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 80.3 (2004): 539-549.

7. Craig, Stuart AS. “Betaine in human nutrition.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 80.3 (2004): 539-549.

8. Abdelmalek, Manal F., et al. “Betaine, a promising new agent for patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: results of a pilot study.” The American journal of gastroenterology 96.9 (2001): 2711-2717.

9. Craig SA. Betaine in human nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 80: 539–549, 2004.

10. Olthof, Margreet R., et al. “Low dose betaine supplementation leads to immediate and long term lowering of plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women.” The Journal of nutrition 133.12 (2003): 4135-4138.

11. Homocysteine Studies Collaboration. “Homocysteine and risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke: a meta-analysis.” Jama 288.16 (2002): 2015-2022.

12. Lomangino, Kevin. “Moving With the Beet: Can It Enhance Athletic Performance?.” Clinical Nutrition Insight 38.9 (2012): 6-7.

13. Bailey, Stephen J., et al. “Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans.” Journal of Applied Physiology 107.4 (2009): 1144-1155.

14. Trejo-Tapia, G., et al. “Effect of screening and subculture on the production of betaxanthins in Beta vulgaris L. var.‘Dark Detroit’callus culture.” Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 9.1 (2008): 32-36.

Creatine | The Paleo Diet

When you hear the term creatine, you likely think of the tubs of muscle-building supplement typically used by younger men to increase lean muscle and improve their physique. However, creatine is a naturally occurring protein in the body, and is in fact found in great abundance in animal protein.

So, what exactly is Creatine? Creatine is a protein made up of 3 amino acids––arginine, methionine and glycine––that is produced naturally in the body. It’s a high energy molecule that helps to produce ATP, the energy currency of every cell in your body. Without ATP, your cells wouldn’t have the fuel they need to survive.

Animal protein is the single best food source of creatine and the research is clear that vegetarians and vegans have consistently lower levels of creatine in the body. So, if you’re already following a Paleo approach to eating, naturally rich in animal protein, you have the ideal foundation for optimal creatine stores. Let’s take a closer look at how achieving your ideal creatine intake via a Paleo diet can help boost your health and performance.

Performance Effects of Creatine

If you’re serious about your training and performance, topping up your creatine levels via a Paleo diet is critical for your success.

Creatine Improves Strength & Power

Achieving optimal creatine levels can improve performance by 10-15%.1 While studies typically examine creatine supplement use, the therapeutic dose can certainly be achieved following Paleo. Whether you’re a runner, cyclist or trying to improve your strength in the gym, creatine has been proven highly effective at improving single sprint velocity and vertical jump, both reliable markers of strength and power.2

Creatine Increases Lean Muscle Mass

It is well established in the scientific literature that creatine is highly effective for increasing lean muscle mass.3 Creatine provides a high energy ATP substrate to fuel explosive movements. Ask any great strength and conditioning coach and they will tell you that “all things being equal,” the stronger athlete typically wins. Achieving your optimal intake of creatine is a critical factor in promoting lean muscle gains.

Creatine Boosts High-Intensity Exercise Performance

It’s a common myth that creatine is only beneficial for strength and team sport athletes. This is simply not true. Endurance athletes regularly engage in “lactate training” or anaerobic threshold, where they purposefully push themselves beyond the aerobic training zone to improve the body’s capacity to buffer lactic acid. High levels of creatine have been show to improve cycling performance at high-intensity in both men and women.4

Creatine Improves Body Composition

For many sports, improving your body composition––decreasing fat mass and increasing lean mass––is a clear path to superior performance. Whether you’re running, cycling, or playing a team sport achieving the ideal body composition for your discipline typically improves your performance outcomes. Optimal creatine intake has been shown in athletes of multiple disciplines to improve body composition.5

Creatine and Overall Health

Creatine isn’t just important for athletic success, it also plays a key role in supporting better overall health. New research is uncovering dynamic potential benefits of creatine for boosting brain function and memory, supporting anti-aging, improving post-concussion recovery, and accelerating healing. Let’s take a closer look at these lesser known benefits.

Creatine and Brain Power

Being sharp and focused at work is a common goal for many of us. While caffeine is usually the first thing people reach for at the office, creatine has shown significant promise as a potent brain-boosting nutrient. A study from the University of Sydney examined the effects of six weeks of creatine supplementation (5g per day) on memory and intelligence.6 The researchers found creatine improved working memory, reduced mental fatigue and increased intelligence.

Creatine and Anti-Aging

Sarcopenia or loss of lean muscle is a serious condition that has its most damaging effects on the elderly. Maintaining lean muscle as you get older is one of the most important markers for your overall health and longevity.7 The typical “tea and toast” diet that many seniors fall victim to is the perfect storm for loss of muscle mass and a Paleo dietary approach (high in creatine-rich animal protein) can help preserve lean muscle and support better energy and vitality as you age.

Creatine and Healing

If you’re active, athletic, or playing teams sports then you’re likely more exposed to injury-risk from contact injuries or falls. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning showed that 5g daily of creatine in people with cast-immobilized limbs preserved muscle mass, strength and endurance.8 Hit the ground running after injury by maintaining a high-protein and creatine diet during your recovery.

Creatine and Concussions

The latest research has discovered that mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients had reduced levels of creatine in their prefrontal brains than placebo.9 As creatine is intricately involved in providing fuel for cells, including neurons (cells of the brain), these new findings highlight a potential use of creatine as a preventative brain support for athletes playing contact sports.

Achieving Optimal Creatine Levels with The Paleo Diet

If boosting working memory, recovering from injury or concussion, building lean muscle and improving exercise performance are a priority for you, then maximizing your creatine stores is crucial to your success. The scientific literature shows that 5g of creatine per day is the ideal dose to take advantage of performance and health benefits. A Paleo diet is easily the most practical and effective dietary strategy to achieve these levels from food alone. In contrast, vegetarians have been shown to have significantly lower levels than meat-eaters and vegans likely even lower without the consumption of eggs or dairy.10

There are two ways to replenish low creatine stores. As 50% of your body’s stores of creatine comes from your diet, increased consumption of Paleo staples like wild game meats– rabbit, venison, elk, bison, and duck –will result in higher creatine levels. Herring provides the best food source of creatine (3.0-4.5g per 1 lb.) and other great sources include beef, pork, chicken or salmon (2.0g per 1 lb.) and wild fish like tuna and cod (1.4-1.8g per 1 lb.). The remaining 50% comes from the internal body production via the essential amino acid methionine and the conditionally essential amino acids glycine and arginine, which are found in the greatest concentrations in animal proteins, whereas vegetarian proteins like beans are low in methionine

By following a Paleo approach to eating you’ll naturally include the richest food sources of creatine in your diet: wild game meat, naturally-raised beef, pork and chicken, and wild fish. Supercharge your athletic performance and upgrade your health by achieving your optimal daily dose of creatine and see for yourself how it translates to better training, performance and overall health.


  1. Kreider RB: Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations. Mol Cell Biochem 2003, 244: 89-94.
  2. Skare OC, Skadberg , Wisnes AR: Creatine supplementation improves sprint performance in male sprinters. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2001,11:96-102
  3. Buford T, Kreider R, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise. JISSN 2007,4:6
  4. Tarnopolsky M, McLennan D. Creatine monohydrate supplementation enhances high-intensity exercise performance in males and females. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2000 Dec;10(4):452-63.
  5. Kirksey KB, Stone MH, et al. The effects of 6 weeks of creatine mono-hydrate supplementation on performance measures and body composition in collegiate track and field athletes. J Strength Cond Res1999, 13:148-156.
  6. Rae C et al. Oral Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Proc Biol Sci. 2003 Oct 22;270(1529):2147-50
  7. Graf C et al. Body composition and all-cause mortality in subjects older than 65 y. Am J Clin Nutr April 2015 vol. 101 no. 4 760-767.
  8. Johnston A, Burke D et al. Effect of creatine supplementation during cast-induced immobilization on the preservation of muscle mas, strength and endurance. J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Jan;23(1):116-20.
  9. Dean P, Otaduy M, et al. Monitoring long-term effects of mild traumatic brain injury with magnetic resonance spectroscopy:a pilot study. Neuroreport. 2013 Aug 21;24(12):677-81.
  10. Burke D, Chilibeck P, et al. Effect of creatine and weight training on muscle creatine and performance in vegetarians. Med Sci Sprts Exerc 20003;35:1946-1955.


Sodium Levels | The Paleo Diet

For the majority of people, the problem with sodium is too much of it, not too little. National health organizations and the Paleo diet agree that high levels of dietary sodium should be avoided for healthy blood pressure levels and to reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease.1 However, diets too low in sodium are also dangerous, especially for athletes engaged in endurance sports.  Fortunately, it is possible for athletes to keep their sodium levels in check, without added processed foods, while still following the Paleo diet.

Understanding the Importance of Sodium in the Body

Although the Paleo diet is in inherently a low sodium lifestyle, dietary sodium, from naturally rich sodium foods and no common table salt, is necessary for everyday bodily functions.2 Muscles, including both the skeletal and cardiac types, need sodium to function properly. Twitches, cramps, spasms, and muscle weakness can occur when sodium levels are too low. The nervous system also uses electrolytes, such as ions of sodium, potassium and chloride, to transmit nerve impulses across cell membranes and to trigger muscle contractions.3 Sodium, in conjunction with potassium, is also necessary to maintain normal blood pressure, blood volume, and to balance bodily fluids.4 If that balance is disturbed, problems like heat-related illnesses and hyponatremia, low blood sodium (<130 mmol/L), may occur.5

Do Athletes Require More Dietary Sodium?

One major concern for athletes, especially those engaged in endurance activities, is that high sweat rates in athletes result in loss of both fluids and sodium.6 Low blood sodium can also occur in people who drink too much water, eat too little food, or take medications that deplete the body’s supply of water.7 Research indicates that the amount of sodium consumed in the days prior to exercise, might be more important in maintaining the proper levels during exercise, then in specific supplementation during the activity.8

Additionally, avoiding sodium rich beverages and foods during physical activity has been shown to not impact performance,9 ingesting sodium prior or during intense or prolonged physical activities is linked to an improved rate of absorption of water and carbohydrate in the small intestines.10 An athlete can encourage proper blood serum sodium levels by drinking for thirst and eating whole fruit, such as oranges, for a gradual fructose release.

Pre-and-Post Workout Meals

Pre-and-post workout meals can provide the necessary recovery nutrients rather than turning to processed supplements that are often sickeningly sweet, and contain many unnecessary additives and refined sugars. Surprisingly, they don’t contain exorbitant amounts of sodium. For example, a scoop of powdered electrolyte supplement contains 14 mg of sodium,11 compared to the 97mg available in a dash of table salt.12 An athlete concerned about maintaining adequate sodium levels during their exercise program can focus including naturally sodium-rich foods to their pre-workout meal, and focusing on the main principles of the Paleo diet. Our favorite sodium-rich and Paleo foods include:13

  • 1 large celery stalk (50 mg)
  • 1 beet (65 mg)
  • 4 oz. lamb chop (65 mg)
  • 4 oz. chicken breast (70 mg)
  • 4 oz. grass-fed ground beef (75 mg)
  • 1 cup of spinach (125 mg)
  • 1 cup of Swiss chard (300 mg)

By simply following a Paleo diet, focused on eating a wide variety of mineral rich vegetables, animal organs, and bone broth will supply the necessary nutrients to maintain adequate sodium levels, for both the weekend warrior and the elite endurance athlete under most training conditions. Traditional hunter-gathers participate in rigorous and demanding physical activities required by their hunting, gathering, and foraging lifestyles without needing to supplement their diets with table salt, or electrolyte supplements, to meet their sodium requirements. Dietary sodium is not quite the villain he has been made out to be. However, we don’t need to overcompensate with sodium-rich supplements when a regular Paleo diet offers enough of this essential nutrient to support most individuals, even those who are avid exercisers.


1. Mattes, R. D., and D. Donnelly. “Relative contributions of dietary sodium sources.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 10.4 (1991): 383-393.

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. “Usual sodium intakes compared with current dietary guidelines—United States, 2005-2008.” MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 60.41 (2011): 1413.

3. Brodal, Per. The central nervous system: structure and function. Oxford University Press, 2004.

4. Blaustein, M. P. “Sodium ions, calcium ions, blood pressure regulation, and hypertension: a reassessment and a hypothesis.” American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology 232.5 (1977): C165-C173.

5. Noakes, T. D., et al. “The incidence of hyponatremia during prolonged ultraendurance exercise.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 22.2 (1990): 165-170.

6. Godek, S. Fowkes, A. R. Bartolozzi, and J. J. Godek. “Sweat rate and fluid turnover in American football players compared with runners in a hot and humid environment.” British journal of sports medicine 39.4 (2005): 205-211.

7. Noakes, Timothy D. “The hyponatremia of exercise.” International journal of sport nutrition 2.3 (1992): 205-228.

8. Stofan, John R., et al. “Sweat and sodium losses in NCAA football players: a precursor to heat cramps?.” International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 15.6 (2005): 641.

9. Merson, Stuart J., Ronald J. Maughan, and Susan M. Shirreffs. “Rehydration with drinks differing in sodium concentration and recovery from moderate exercise-induced hypohydration in man.” European journal of applied physiology 103.5 (2008): 585-594.

10. Murray, Robert. “The effects of consuming carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages on gastric emptying and fluid absorption during and following exercise.” Sports Medicine 4.5 (1987): 322-351.

11. Available at: //nutritiondata.self.com/facts/beverages/9232/2. Accessed on October 7, 2015.

12. Avaialble at: //nutritiondata.self.com/facts/spices-and-herbs/216/2. Accessed on October 7, 2015.

13. //nutritiondata.self.com/

Pumpkin- The Perfectly Paleo Carb for Athletes! | The Paleo Diet

With all the nonsense we see these days in the media, it would be easy to misunderstand one of the fundamental principles of a real Paleo diet:  it’s a balanced way of eating.

Contrary to popular belief, it is not a regime focused on eating only meat, all day long. In The Paleo Diet,1 Dr. Cordain explains that a true hunter-gatherer diet is comprised of a macronutrient balance as follows: Pro 19-35%, Cho 22-40%, Fat 28-47%

How do you like them apples? And while a crisp, green apple is a great way to sneak some low glycemic fruit2 into the mix, there are some other options we can enjoy in order to fuel for, or recover from our athletic endeavors.

At this time of year, when we’re just about to welcome autumn produce into our kitchens, what better way to do so than by incorporating one of the most seasonally appropriate fall fruits, the pumpkin?3

In addition to tasting great, pumpkin offers a wealth of health benefits:4

  • Improved eyesight, due to its high Vitamin A content.
  • Cancer prevention from its antioxidant profile, according to the National Cancer Institute.
  • And, perhaps most relevant to this article, a cup of cooked pumpkin has more of the refueling nutrient potassium, with 564 milligrams (compare that to a banana, which has 422).

A little extra potassium helps restore the body’s balance of electrolytes after a heavy workout and keeps muscles functioning at their best.  High in potassium and low in sodium, this is but one more piece of evidence to show how well pumpkin fits into the perfect Paleo profile.

But how do you eat it? Buying a can of it off the shelf isn’t exactly the most natural way to go about it. Here’s my favorite way to enjoy pumpkin with an interesting twist- you can use the squash itself as the serving vehicle!


Paleoista's Pumpkin Soup | The Paleo Diet[/one_half]


  • 1 small to medium sized pumpkin
  • 2 tbsp rendered duck fat, plus another tablespoon reserved
  • 1 small yellow onion, chopped
  • 1 cup white mushrooms, chopped
  • 1 lb 100% grass fed chuck, cut into 1” cubes
  • 2 cups chicken or beef broth, plus more depending on desired consistency of soup
  • 1 spring thyme
  • 1 sprig rosemary
  • 1 bay leaf
  • 4 cups baby spinach
  • 2 tbsp freshly snipped chives, for garnish


1. Preheat oven to 350° F.

2. Remove top from pumpkin and set aside.

3. Scoop out seeds, rinse and set aside to dry.

4. Heat duck fat in skillet over medium high.

5. Add onions and mushrooms and sauté until browned roughly 5 – 7 minutes.

6. Remove onions and mushrooms from skillet and brown beef on all sides, roughly 4 -6 minutes.

7. Add veggies back into skillet along with broth.

8. Scrape browned bits off bottom with wooden spatula.
9. Tie herbs together with kitchen twine and place in mixture.

10. Set pumpkin cut side up in Dutch Oven and use reserved fat to rub all over the outside of the rind.

11. Pour mixture into pumpkin, then cover with pumpkin top.

12. Place in oven and cook one hour, stirring halfway through.

13. Remove from oven and stir baby spinach into the mixture, then replace pumpkin top.

14. Let sit roughly five minutes, then serve in bowls, passing chives for garnish.
Enjoy the leftovers tomorrow after a long run or bike ride; soups and stews are even better on the second day!



[1] Cordain, Loren. The Paleo Diet: Lose Weight and Get Healthy by Eating the Foods You Were Designed to Eat. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2011. Print.

[2] Braverman, Jody. “Are Apples Good for Keeping Blood Sugar Steady?” Healthy Eating. University of Redlands, n.d. Web. 09 Sept. 2015.

[3] Nelson, Jennifer, RD. “Nutrition and Healthy Eating.” Fruit or Vegetable — Do You Know the Difference? The Mayo Clinic, 15 Aug. 2012. Web. 09 Sept. 2015

[4] Klein, Sarah. “8 Impressive Health Benefits of Pumpkin.” The Huffington Post. Th Huffington Post, 5 Oct. 2012. Web

Add Salt and Stop Gaining Weight? | The Paleo Diet

“In a study that seems to defy conventional dietary wisdom, scientists have found that adding high salt to a high-fat diet actually prevents weight gain in mice.”1

So, after all this time, is adding salt to the diet not really as consequential as we thought?  Can we just douse our food with it, eat whatever foods we fancy and then magically stay lean and fit? Let’s investigate.

The researchers hypothesized that fat and salt, both tasty and easy to overeat, would collectively increase food consumption and promote weight gain. They tested the hypothesis by feeding groups of mice different diets: normal or high-fat chow with varying levels of salt. To their surprise, the mice on the high-fat diet with the lowest salt gained the most weight.

But how can this be? Don’t we need to eat a diet lower in fat and salt, per USDA recommendations,2 in order to be as healthy as possible?

“Our findings, in conjunction with other studies, are showing that there is a wide range of dietary efficiency, or absorption of calories, in the populations, and that may contribute to resistance or sensitivity to weight gain”, says Michael Lutter, MD, PhD, co-senior study author and UI assistant professor of psychiatry.

Well, that certainly makes sense. Humans certainly are not all cut from the same cloth. We have to factor in genetic variability, and nature versus nurture, in terms of what we we’re fed growing up and whether our upbringing favored activity and exercise.

Furthermore, we need to consider what we are eating in the grand scheme of things. How does this affect our macronutrient ratios and consequently what is our body using for its fuel source? For example, if we eat a ‘healthy’ diet with many servings of natural fruit during the day, we provide our body with a constant, steady stream of carbohydrates. This prevents the body from tapping into stored fat which requires the body to put forth significantly more effort. If, however, we begin the process of becoming fat adapted, we force the body to do the latter and turn to fat as its primary fuel source.3

Many of us who are already in sync with the recommendations of a real Paleo diet are comfortable with the recommendation to eat a diet higher in fat. But, the mention of adding salt really throws us a curve ball! After all, added salt is linked to a host of negative side effects including high blood pressure, osteoporosis and kidney stones, stomach cancer, stroke, Menierre’s Syndrome, insomnia, motion sickness, asthma and exercise induced asthma.4

A brief glance at our colleagues, friends and family’s food habits, provide all the proof we need that the typical American is following a diet far too high in sodium. It’s a fair bet most could do with, at the very least, weaning off the salt, by cutting back on the salt shaker and simultaneously omitting processed foodstuffs. But, this begs the question, how should athletes balance their Paleo diets and replace electrolytes through sweat?

Rehydrating with pure water without also replenishing salts can be potentially fatal and lead to hyponatremia, a condition that can occur when the level of sodium in your blood is abnormally low. Drinking too much water during endurance sports causes the sodium in your body to become diluted. When this happens, your body’s water levels rise, and your cells begin to swell. This swelling can cause many health problems, from mild to life threatening.5 Other side effects may include lightheadedness, fatigue, headaches and constipation.

Moreover, on a low carb diet where the body becomes reliant on fat as its fuel, more salt is used in the process when insulin levels go down and the body starts shedding excess sodium and water along with it. On a high carb diet, insulin signals the cells to store fat and the kidneys to hold on to sodium, which is why people often get rid of excess bloat within a few days of low-carb eating.6

But again, if sodium is a crucial electrolyte in the body, how do we replace it? Presuming you’re following a healthy, high in fat, but void of refined, processed carbs and with adequate wild proteins and local veggies Paleo diet, adding a few pinches of salt to a recovery drink is permitted7 and may, in some instances, be a part of preventing weight gain. The general takeaway is not to simply add salt and watch the pounds melt away. Rather, train your body to become fat adapted in conjunction with following a real Paleo approach.

These findings “may lead to the developments of new anti-obesity treatments” and “may support continued and nuanced discussions of public policies regarding dietary nutrient recommendations.”

Let’s hope the new treatments go beyond a new pill or surgery, and the recommendations are evidenced by science versus the current guidelines deterring us as a society to truly follow a path to optimal health!



[1] ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, n.d. Web. 15 June 2015.

[2] “Dietary Guidelines.” Dietary Guidelines. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 June 2015.

[3] Volek, Jeff, Stephen D. Phinney, Eric Kossoff, Jacqueline A. Eberstein, and Jimmy Moore. The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living: An Expert Guide to Making the Life-saving Benefits of Carbohydrate Restriction Sustainable and Enjoyable. Lexington, KY: Beyond Obesity, 2011. Print.

[4] “Sea Salt: Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea.” The Paleo Diet. N.p., 20 Apr. 2014. Web. 15 June 2015.

[5] “Hyponatremia.” – Mayo Clinic. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 June 2015.

[6] “Insulin’s Impact on Renal Sodium Transport and Blood Pressure in Health, Obesity, and Diabetes.” Insulin’s Impact on Renal Sodium Transport and Blood Pressure in Health, Obesity, and Diabetes. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 June 2015.

[7] Cordain, Loren, and Joe Friel. “Stages III, IV, V: Eating After Exercise.” The Paleo Diet for Athletes: The Ancient Nutritional Formula for Peak Athletic Performance. New York: Rodale, 2012. 56-57. Print.

Is Fasted Training the Fastest Route to a Lean Body? | The Paleo Diet

We read all about it, not just in the Paleosphere, but also in the world of sports nutrition; train on an empty stomach in order to become better at using fat as your fuel. I do it myself, for Pete’s sake!  Not only that, but I have many clients following the same “fasted training” regime, waking up and running or spinning before breakfast.

But, is fasted training all it’s chalked up to be? A recent study published in the International Journal of Sports Nutrition1 concluded otherwise. The study measured changes in fat versus lean mass after a one-month period in which one group trained in a fasted state, while the other group simply followed a low calorie diet. Both followed the same exercise protocol of an hour of steady-state aerobic exercise performed three days per week and were provided with customized dietary plans designed to induce a caloric deficit.

Nutritional counseling was provided throughout the study period to help ensure dietary adherence and self-reported food intake was monitored on a regular basis. A meal replacement shake2 was provided either immediately prior to exercise for the low-calorie group or immediately following exercise for the fasted group.

Both groups showed a significant loss of weight and fat mass from baseline, but no significant between-group differences were noted in any outcome measure. Their findings indicated body composition changes associated with aerobic exercise in conjunction with a hypo-caloric diet are similar regardless whether or not an individual is fasted prior to training.

The authors of the study concluded body composition changes associated with aerobic exercise in conjunction with a hypo-caloric diet are similar regardless whether or not an individual is fasted prior to training, albeit because the study was short and small in number, more research is warranted in a longer term trial with a greater number of participants.

So is that all she wrote? Hardly.

You don’t need to be a fellow research scientist to be able to see some red flags in the study. The first point of contention for me was the macronutrient ratio of the dietary regime the subjects were asked to follow. Unsurprisingly, both were close to nearly half their calories from carbohydrates and, I’d venture to say, it’s a safe bet that those calories weren’t likely coming purely from fresh, local, in season vegetables.

Rather, given that the diets were likely supervised by registered dieticians, it’s more than likely participants were eating foods we see typically regarded as ‘healthy carbs’ in the media, perhaps items like quinoa to whole grain foods, dare I say the ‘low-fat pretzels’. Of course, this is just conjecture on my part, but not at all a far-fetched assumption.

Next, we have the issue of the meal replacement shake. Without knowing which of the versions of the shake was used, we don’t really know what the macronutrient ratio provided to the participants. What we do know, however, is that they weren’t given food. Have a look at one of their products, Elite Whey Protein’s, ingredient label:

Elite 100% Whey Protein Blend (Whey Protein Isolate , & Whey Protein Concentrate), Whey Peptides, Polydextrose, Natural and Artificial Flavors, Cocoa (Processed With Alkali), Gum Blend (Cellulose Gum, Xanthan Gum, Carrageenan), Salt, Zytrix® Enzyme Blend (Protease, Lactase, Lipase), Acesulfame Potassium, Sucralose, Stevia Leaf Extract. Contains Milk and Soy (Lecithin).

While there are certainly a few products on the market I’m aware of that make good “in-a-pinch” protein options, the laundry list above, in my opinion, doesn’t make the great for a natural, clean protein option.

Finally, what were the subjects eating during the rest of the day and what did the low-calorie group actually eat? This isn’t my first rodeo. Having been in the nutrition and fitness field first as a young athlete far before college and experiencing the trends of the early nineties, I can vouch firsthand for what diets were like back then. I followed an “athlete’s plan for eating” in high school given to me by a nutrition professional which had me eating 1,200 calories/day at 5’6” and 119 pounds exercising an average of 90 minutes a day. I was only 16 and guess what I did for extra energy?  Had some Diet Coke!

I shudder the thought now, but the point is if we rely on a low calorie approach rather than the source of the calories, we’re doing ourselves in.

So, back to the study. What’s the take away? In my experience, training fasted is a good way to start your day, whether you’re an athlete, a mom trying to lose baby weight, or a busy executive looking for the best way to achieve optimal mental focus. As with everything else, I recommend using your own body as a subject and doing your own experiment.

If you’re already following a True Paleo regime, all you need to do is wake up tomorrow, and head out for a 30 minute jog or elliptical session for your first test. Come home, hydrate and eat your normal breakfast consisting of some good protein, natural fat and a hefty portion of fresh veggies. Then, the next day, try the same exact thing but have a ripe, spotty banana first. Which elicits a better response?

Granted, what we eat as athletes will demand a change in the macros of a post exercise meal (perhaps including some yam or higher glycemic fruit in a meal if the session has been particularly long or taxing), but this simple test above is a good way to measure your own baseline.

If you start the day in fat-burning mode and carry on with True Paleo diet eating all day long, you’ll be in a much higher-energy state with improved mental focus and guess what?  When you’re eating properly rather than dieting, you’ll be able to achieve your weight loss goal, albeit slowly and steadily sometimes, but in a manner that lets you sustain it long term.

Go train…fasted!



[1] Body composition changes associated with fasted versus non-fasted aerobic exercise, Brad Jon Schoenfeld,, Alan Albert Aragon, Colin D Wilborn, James W Krieger and Gul T Sonmez, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 11:54  doi:10.1186/s12970-014-0054-7, November 2014

[2] (Pursuit Recovery, Dymatize Nutrition, Dallas, TX). The shake contained 250 calories consisting of 40 g carbohydrate, 20 g protein, and 0.5 g fat.

Hemp | The Paleo Diet

There’s no argument that eating protein is an essential component of the Paleo diet. Traditional hunter-gatherers consumed high amounts (45–65% of energy) of animal food, resulting in a macronutrient consumption ratio in which protein accounted for 19–35% of their energy intake.[1] Although there are many grass-fed, pastured, and wild animal sources for protein intake in modern times, consumers are still attracted to plant based options to meet their protein requirements.

One popular plant protein is sourced from hemp. Specifically, hemp protein powders have been marketed as a highly digestible, superior quality plant source, but should it be incorporated into your Paleo Diet? Let’s take a closer look at hemp.

Hemp is a plant, that has been cultivated for thousands of years in China, used for both its seed and fibers as a food and in textiles.[2] It is a high protein seed containing 20 amino acids, including all nine of the essential amino acids. Hemp seeds are rich in oil: 44% (by weight) is edible oil, containing about 80% essential fatty acids (EFAs); e.g., linoleic acid, omega-6(LA, 55%), alpha-linolenic acid, omega-3 (ALA, 22%), in addition to gamma-linolenic acid, omega-6 (GLA, 1–4%) and stearidonic acid, omega-3 (SDA, 0–2%).

Proteins (including edestin) comprise the other major component (33%). Hemp seed’s amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of protein such as meat, milk, and eggs.[3] Overall, it has a ratio of omega 3 to 6 fats at around a three to one ratio. Since, hemp seeds are high in polyunsaturated fats, they can easily go rancid and should be stored properly.

As a whole food, the shelled seeds (called hearts), oil, and even the fresh leaves can be eaten. You may notice hemp seed oil, hemp butter, hemp milk and even hemp flour on the grocery store shelves. Unlike other seeds, hemp doesn’t contain phytic acid viewed as an anti-nutrient in human diets as it binds with important minerals.[4]

Although hemp is a member of the same plant family (Cannabis sativa) as marijuana, there are distinct differences between the two. The most important is that hemp has less than 1% of the psychoactive substance THC, while marijuana can contain 20% or more.[5] (//thepaleodiet.com/habitual-marijuana-use-paleo-diet-long-strange-trip/)

Proteins from animal sources (i.e. eggs, milk, meat, fish and poultry) provide the highest quality rating of food sources due to the completeness of proteins from these sources.[6]  However, hemp seed protein is unique in that 65% of it is globulin edestin, the highest amount found in any plant.[7] Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) evidence that hemp proteins have a PDCAAS equal to or greater than certain grains or nuts, 49-53% for whole hemp seed, 46-51% for hemp seed meal, and 63-66% for dehulled hemp seed.[8] It is clear that hemp seeds provide a concentrated amount of highly digestible protein. For example, one ounce of hemp seeds contains 10 grams of protein[9], compared to one ounce of steak with 6 grams of protein.[10]

However, are Hemp seeds Paleo?

Despite it’s apparent advantages, hemp in any whole food form, like any seed, should only be consumed moderately on the Paleo Diet. If you like the taste of shelled hemp seeds, you can sprinkle them over a green salad or add them to your homemade Paleo trail mix in addition to other nuts for a quick energy snack.

The best sources of protein still remain from wild, predominately grass-fed and wild animals. If you like to start your day with a vegetable-based smoothie, add a piece of previously cooked chicken or bison on the side to boost the protein content and steer clear of protein powders. Hemp protein powder is not recommended on the Paleo Diet.

Stephanie Vuolo

Stephanie Vuolo | The Paleo Diet Team

Stephanie Vuolo is a Certified Nutritional Therapist, an American College of Sports Medicine Personal Trainer, and a Certified CrossFit Level 1 Coach. She has a B.A. in Communications from Villanova University. She is a former contributor to Discovery Communications/TLC Blog, Parentables.

Stephanie lives in Seattle, WA, where she is a passionate and enthusiastic advocate for how diet and lifestyle can contribute to overall wellness and longevity. She has been raising her young daughter on the Paleo Diet since birth. You can visit her website at www.primarilypaleo.com.


[1] Cordain, Loren, et al. “Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 71.3 (2000): 682-692.

[2] Bocsa, Ivan, and Michael Karus. The cultivation of hemp: botany, varieties, cultivation and harvesting. Hemptech, 1998.

[3] Callaway, J. C. “Hempseed as a nutritional resource: an overview.” Euphytica 140.1-2 (2004): 65-72.

[4] Lott, John NA, et al. “Phytic acid and phosphorus in crop seeds and fruits: a global estimate.” Seed Science Research 10.01 (2000): 11-33.

[5] Datwyler, Shannon L., and George D. Weiblen. “Genetic Variation in Hemp and Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) According to Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms*.” Journal of Forensic Sciences 51.2 (2006): 371-375.

[6] Campbell, Wayne W., et al. “Effects of an omnivorous diet compared with a lactoovovegetarian diet on resistance-training-induced changes in body composition and skeletal muscle in older men.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 70.6 (1999): 1032-1039.

[7] Osburn, Lynn. “Hemp seed: the most nutritionally complete food source in the world.” Part two: Hemp seed oils and the flow of live force. Hemp Line J 1.2 (1992): 12-13.

[8] House, James D., Jason Neufeld, and Gero Leson. “Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method.” Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 58.22 (2010): 11801-11807.

[9]  Available at: //nutritiondata.self.com/facts/custom/629104/2. Accessed on January 8, 2015.

[10] Available at: //nutritiondata.self.com/facts/beef-products/10525/2. Accessed on January 8, 2015.


In The Paleo Diet for Athletes, we lay out a comprehensive dietary strategy for performance athletes based on the principles of the Paleo Diet, but with minor adjustments.1 Athletes push themselves to physiological extremes rarely experienced by our distant ancestors. Accordingly, they have slightly different nutritional needs compared to non-athletes.

Meals consumed before training should be higher in carbohydrates, lower in fiber, and should be very hydrating.2 Additionally, these meals should include some source of protein. Our Carrot Coconut Lemongrass Soup alongside a serving of wild Alaskan salmon is a complete, excellent pre-workout meal.

Carrots are starchy, relatively high-carb vegetables containing significant amounts of water; when broken down through digestion, they are very hydrating. Consuming adequate liquids prevents protein breakdown during training, thereby enhancing performance and recovery.3

Besides creating lavish textures, we’re blending the soup, which disrupts the fiber content of the carrots. A study of the plasma-glucose effects of three forms of apples—whole, juiced, and blended—concluded, “The removal of fibre from food, and also its physical disruption, can result in faster and easier ingestion, decreased satiety, and disturbed glucose homoeostasis which is probably due to inappropriate insulin release.”4 For an athlete’s pre-workout meal, soups have their advantages.

carrot-soup-clark-6Whole vegetables are generally better than fiber-disrupted purées, but occasionally it’s great to enjoy the textures afforded by modern technology. I would recommend this soup for your next dinner party, especially when hosting guests who are unfamiliar with the Paleo lifestyle. This soup is a definite crowd pleaser, no matter which section of the crowd one might be sitting.


Serves 3-4

  • 3 large or 6 small carrots (about ¾ pound), roughly chopped
  • 1 large zucchini, roughly chopped
  • 3 stalks lemongrass, finely chopped
  • 2 cloves garlic, pressed
  • ½ inch piece of ginger, finely chopped
  • 1 onion, roughly chopped
  • 1½ cups coconut milk
  • 3 Kaffir lime leaves or juice of ½ lime
  • Fresh cilantro, for garnish


To prepare the lemongrass, remove the outer layers, trim the stems, and cut an inch or two from the tops.
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Christopher James Clark, B.B.A.
Nutritional Grail

Christopher James Clark | The Paleo Diet TeamChristopher James Clark, B.B.A. is an award-winning author, writer, consultant, and chef with specialized knowledge in nutritional science and healing cuisine. He has a Business Administration degree from the University of Michigan and formerly worked as a revenue management analyst for a Fortune 100 company. For the past decade-plus, he has been designing menus, recipes, and food concepts for restaurants and spas, coaching private clients, teaching cooking workshops worldwide, and managing the kitchen for a renowned Greek yoga resort. Clark is the author of the critically acclaimed, award-winning book, Nutritional Grail.

See more recipes!


1. Cordain, L. & Friel, J. (2012). The Paleo Diet for Athletes: The Ancient Nutritional Formula for Peak Athletic Performance. Rodale Books; revised edition.

2. Ibid.

3. Ibid.

4. Haber, G.B., Heaton, K.W., Murphy. D., & Burroughs L.F. (1977). Depletion and disruption of dietary fibre. Effects on satiety, plasma-glucose, and serum-insulin. The Lancet, 2(8040), 679-82.

Ergogenic | The Paleo Diet

Many athletes worldwide, including those in the CrossFit community have adopted the Paleo Diet because they have observed that it helps them to increase muscle mass, reduce body fat and train at greater intensities. These characteristics ultimately result in enhanced performance. In a nutshell, there are four basic reasons why the Paleo Diet enhances athletic performance or is ergogenic.

1.Branched-chain amino acids

First, the diet is high in animal protein, which is the richest source of the branched-chain amino acids–valine, leucine, and isoleucine. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are different from other amino acids that collectively make up protein in that they are potent stimulants for building and repairing muscle. This information is relatively new and has been reported in the scientific literature in the past decade or so. But the caveat is this: These amino acids work best when consumed in the post exercise window.

Lean meats and fish are far and away the greatest source of BCAA. A 1,000-calorie serving of lean beef provides 33.7 grams of BCAA, whereas the same serving of whole grains supplies a paltry 6 grams. Because many endurance athletes focus on starches (breads, cereals, pasta, rice, and potatoes) and sugars at the expense of meats, particularly following a hard workout, they get precious little muscle-building BCAA in their diets. By consuming high amounts of animal protein (and hence BCAA) along with sufficient carbohydrate, athletes can rapidly reverse the natural breakdown of muscle that occurs following a workout and thereby reduce recovery time and train at a greater intensity at the next session. Athletes worldwide who have adopted the Paleo Diet typically report of improved recovery with these dietary recommendations.

2. Blood acidity versus alkalinity

In addition to stimulating muscle growth via BCAA, the Paleo Diet simultaneously prevents muscle protein breakdown because it produces a net metabolic alkalosis. All foods, upon digestion, report to the kidney as either acid or alkali (base). The typical American diet is net acid producing because of its high reliance upon acid-yielding grains, cheeses, and salty processed foods at the expense of base-producing fruits and veggies. The athlete’s body is even more prone to blood acidosis due to the by-products of exercise. One way the body neutralizes a net-acid-producing diet is by breaking down muscle tissue. Because the Paleo Diet is rich in fruits and veggies, it reverses the metabolic acidosis produced from the typical grain-and starch-laden diet that many athletes consume, thereby preventing muscle loss.

3. Trace nutrients

Fruits and vegetables are also rich sources of antioxidant vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals and, together with fresh meats (excellent sources of zinc and B vitamins), promote optimal immune-system functioning. The refined grains, oils, sugars, and processed foods that represent the typical staples for most athletes are nearly devoid of these trace nutrients. From examining the training logs of numerous people he has coached, my colleague and co-author, Joe Friel (an internationally known triathlete coach), has found that the frequency and duration of colds, flu, and upper respiratory illnesses are reduced when athletes adopt the Paleo Diet. A healthy athlete, free of colds and illness, can train more consistently and intensely and thereby improve performance.

4. Glycogen stores

One of the most important goals of any athletic diet is to maintain high muscle stores of glycogen, a body fuel absolutely essential for high-level performance. Dietary starches and sugars are the body’s number one source for making muscle glycogen. Protein won’t do, and neither will fat. Athletes and sports scientists have known this truth for decades. Regrettably, they took this concept to extremes; high-starch, cereal-based, carbohydrate-rich diets were followed with near-fanatical zeal 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

It is a little known fact, but, similar to the situation with branched-chain amino acids, glycogen synthesis by muscles occurs most effectively in the immediate post-exercise window. Muscles can build all the glycogen they need when they get starch and sugar in the narrow time frame following exercise. Eating carbs all day long is overkill and actually serves to displace the muscle-building animal proteins and alkalinity-enhancing, nutrient-dense fruits and veggies that are needed to promote muscle growth and boost the immune system. Many Paleo friendly fruits and veggies are effective in restoring muscle glycogen, particularly net-alkaline-producing starches found in bananas, sweet potatoes, and yams.


Loren Cordain, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus


1. Anthony, J. C., Lang, C. H., Crozier, S. J., Anthony, T. G., MacLean, D. A., Kimball, S. R., and Jefferson, L. S. “Contribution of insulin to the translational control of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle by leucine.” American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology Metabolism, 2002; 282: E1092–101.

2. Ballmer, P. E., and Imoberdorf, R. “Influence of acidosis on protein metabolism.” Nutrition, 1995; 11:462–8.

3. Beelen M, Koopman R, Gijsen AP, Vandereyt H, Kies AK, Kuipers H, Saris WH, van Loon LJ. Protein coingestion stimulates muscle protein synthesis during resistance-type exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jul;295(1):E70-7. Epub 2008 Apr 22.

4. Beelen M, Burke LM, Gibala MJ, van Loon L JC. Nutritional strategies to promote postexercise recovery. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2010 Dec;20(6):515-32.

5. Calder, P. C., and Kew, S. “The immune system: a target for functional foods?” British Journal of Nutrition, 2002; 88 Suppl 2:S165–77.

6. Cordain, L. “The nutritional characteristics of a contemporary diet based upon Paleolithic food groups.” Journal of American Neutraceutical Association, 2002; 5:15–24.

7. Ferencik, M., and Ebringer, L. “Modulatory effects of selenium and zinc on the immune system.” Folia Microbiology (Praha), 2003; 48:417–26.

8. Frassetto, L., Morris, R. C., and Sebastian, A. “Potassium bicarbonate reduces urinary nitrogen excretion in postmenopausal women.” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, 1997; 82:254–59.

9. Hawley, J. A., Schabort, E. J., Noakes, T. D., and Dennis, S. C. “Carbohydrate-loading and exercise performance. An update.” Sports Medicine, 1997; 24:73–81.

10. Howarth KR, Moreau NA, Phillips SM, Gibala MJ. Coingestion of protein with carbohydrate during recovery from endurance exercise stimulates skeletal muscle protein synthesis in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2009 Apr;106(4):1394-402. Epub 2008 Nov 26.

11. Koopman R, Pannemans DL, Jeukendrup AE, Gijsen AP, Senden JM, Halliday D, Saris WH, van Loon LJ, Wagenmakers AJ. Combined ingestion of protein and carbohydrate improves protein balance during ultra-endurance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Oct;287(4):E712-20. Epub 2004 May 27.

12. Layman, D. K. “Role of leucine in protein metabolism during exercise and recovery.” Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 2002; 27:646–62.
Lemon, P. W., Berardi, J. M., and Noreen, E. E. “The role of protein and amino acid supplements in the athlete’s diet: does type or timing of ingestion matter?” Current Sports Medicine Reports, 2002; 1:214–21.

13. Levenhagen, D. K., Gresham, J. D., Carlson, M. G., Maron, D. J., Borel, M. J., and Flakoll, P. J. “Postexercise nutrient intake timing in humans is critical to recovery of leg glucose and protein homeostasis.” American Journal of Physiology–Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2001; 280:E982–93.

14. May, R. C., Bailey, J. L., Mitch, W. E., Masud, T., and England, B. K. “Glucocorticoids and aci-dosis stimulate protein and amino acid catabolism in vivo.” Kidney International, 1996; 49:679–83.

15. Rasmussen BB, Tipton KD, Miller SL, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR. An oral essential amino acid-carbohydrate supplement enhances muscle protein anabolism after resistance exercise.J Appl Physiol. 2000 Feb;88(2):386-92.

16. Remer, T. “Influence of nutrition on acid-base balance–metabolic aspects.” European Journal of Nutrition, 2001; 40:214–20.

17. Remer, T., and Manz, F. “Potential renal acid load of foods and its influence on urine pH.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 1995; 95:791–97.

18. Rowlands DS, Rössler K, Thorp RM, Graham DF, Timmons BW, Stannard SR, Tarnopolsky MA. Effect of dietary protein content during recovery from high-intensity cycling on subsequent performance and markers of stress, inflammation, and muscle damage in well-trained men. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Feb;33(1):39-51.

19. Saunders MJ. Coingestion of carbohydrate-protein during endurance exercise: influence on performance and recovery. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007 Aug;17 Suppl:S87-103.

20. Thomson JS, Ali A, Rowlands DS. Leucine-protein supplemented recovery feeding enhances subsequent cycling performance in well-trained men. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011 Apr;36(2):242-53.

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22. Valentine RJ, Saunders MJ, Todd MK, St Laurent TG. Influence of carbohydrate-protein beverage on cycling endurance and indices of muscle disruption. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008 Aug;18(4):363-78.

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