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Paleo Studies

As with any scientific theory, research needs to be conducted to test and validate that idea. Since its inception in the early 2000s, studies have been conducted exploring the health benefits of The Paleo Diet; that body of research grows more rapidly every year. This page lists all the research addressing The Paleo Diet to date.

Experimental Paleolithic Nutrition Studies:


1. Lindeberg, S., et al., A Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean- like diet in individuals with ischaemic heart disease. Diabetologia, 2007. 50(9): p. 1795-1807. [Read this study]


2. Osterdahl, M., et al., Effects of a short-term intervention with a paleolithic diet in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr, 2008. 62(5): p. 682-5. [Read this study]


3. Frassetto, L.A., et al., Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet. Eur J Clin Nutr, 2009. 63(8): p. 947-55. [Read this study]

4. Jonsson, T., et al., Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study. Cardiovasc Diabetol, 2009. 8: p. 35. [Read this study]

5. Klonoff, D.C., The beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on type 2 diabetes and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. J Diabetes Sci Technol, 2009. 3(6): p. 1229-32. [Read this study]


6. Jonsson, T., et al., A paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease. Nutr Metab (Lond), 2010. 7: p. 85. [Read this study]


7. Kowalski, LM., et al., [Evaluation of Biological and Clinical Potential of Paleolithic Diet.] Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2012;63(1):9-15. [Read this study]


8. Clemens, Z., et al., Childhood absence epilepsy successfully treated with the paleolithic ketogenic diet. Neurol Ther, 2013. 2(1-2): p. 71-6. [Read this study]

9. Jonsson, T., et al., Subjective satiety and other experiences of a Paleolithic diet compared to a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes. Nutr J, 2013. 12: p. 105. [Read this study]

10. Ryberg, M., et al., A Palaeolithic-type diet causes strong tissue-specific effects on ectopic fat deposition in obese postmenopausal women. J Intern Med, 2013. 274(1): p. 67-76. [Read this study]


11. Bisht B., et al., A multimodal intervention for patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: feasibility and effect on fatigue. J Altern Complement Med. 2014 May;20(5):347-55. [Read this study]

12. Boers, I., et al., Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot-study. Lipids Health Dis, 2014. 13: p. 160. [Read this study]

13. Carter, P., et al., A Mediterranean diet improves HbA1c but not fasting blood glucose compared to alternative dietary strategies: a network meta-analysis. J Hum Nutr Diet, 2014. 27(3): p. 280- 97. [Read this study]

14. Kamel, KS., et al., Integration of the Response to Dietary Potassium Load: A Paleolithic Perspective. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014 May;29(5):982-9. [Read this study]

15. Mellberg, C., et al., Long-term effects of a Palaeolithic-type diet in obese postmenopausal women: a 2-year randomized trial. Eur J Clin Nutr, 2014. 68(3): p. 350-7. [Read this study]

16. Talreja, D., et al., Impact of a Paleolithic Diet on Modifiable Cardiovascular Risk Factors. Journal of Clinical Lipidology, 2014. 8(3): p. 341. [Read this study]

17. Tóth, C. and Z. Clemens, Type 1 diabetes mellitus successfully managed with the paleolithic ketogenic diet. Vol. 5. 2014. [Read this study]

18. Whalen, K.A., et al., Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet pattern scores and risk of incident, sporadic colorectal adenomas. Am J Epidemiol, 2014. 180(11): p. 1088-97. [Read this study]


19. Bisht B., et al., Multimodal intervention improves fatigue and quality of life in subjects with progressive multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. Degener Neurol Neuromuscul Dis. 2015;5:19-35. [Read this study]

20. Bligh, H.F., et al., Plant-rich mixed meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles have a dramatic impact on incretin, peptide YY and satiety response, but show little effect on glucose and insulin homeostasis: an acute-effects randomised study. Br J Nutr, 2015. 113(4): p. 574-84. [Read this study]

21. Frassetto, L.A., et al., Erratum: Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet. Eur J Clin Nutr, 2015. 69(12): p. 1376. [Read this study]

22. Manheimer, E.W., et al., Paleolithic nutrition for metabolic syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr, 2015. 102(4): p. 922-32. [Read this study]

23. Masharani, U., et al., Metabolic and physiologic effects from consuming a hunter-gatherer (Paleolithic)-type diet in type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr, 2015. 69(8): p. 944-8. [Read this study]

24. Pastore, R.L., J.T. Brooks, and J.W. Carbone, Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations. Nutr Res, 2015. 35(6): p. 474-9. [Read this study]

25. Stomby, A., et al., Diet-induced21. weight loss has chronic tissue-specific effects on glucocorticoid metabolism in overweight postmenopausal women. Int J Obes (Lond), 2015. 39(5): p. 814-9. [Read this study]

26. Talreja, A., et al., CRT-601 The VA Beach Diet Study: An Investigation Of The Effects Of Plant- based, Mediterranean, Paleolithic, And Dash Diets On Cardiovascular Disease Risk. 2015. 8(2 Supplement): p. S41. [Read this study]


27. Dolan C, C.A., Davies N, Markofski M. , Effects of an 8-week Paleo dietary intervention on inflammatory cytokines, in American Physiological Society Conference, Inflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease. 2016: Westminster, CO. pp 40-41. [Read this study]

28. Fontes-Villalba, M., et al., Palaeolithic diet decreases fasting plasma leptin concentrations more than a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised cross-over trial. Cardiovasc Diabetol, 2016. 15: p. 80. [Read this study]

29. Genoni, A., et al., Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial. Nutrients. 2016 May 23;8(5):314. [Read this study]

30. Talreja, D., et al., CRT-800.00 An Investigation of Plant-based, Mediterranean, Paleolithic, and Dash Diets. 2016. 9(4 Supplement): p. S61. [Read this study]

31. Whalen, K.A., et al., Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores Are Inversely Associated with Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Balance in Adults. J Nutr, 2016. 146(6): p. 1217- 26. [Read this study]


32. Afifi, L., et al., Dietary Behaviors in Psoriasis: Patient-Reported Outcomes from a U.S. National Survey. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb), 2017. 7(2): p. 227-242. [Read this study]

33. Anton, S.D., et al., Effects of Popular Diets without Specific Calorie Targets on Weight Loss Outcomes: Systematic Review of Findings from Clinical Trials. Nutrients, 2017. 9(8). [Read this study]

34. Blomquist, C., et al., Attenuated Low-Grade Inflammation Following Long-Term Dietary Intervention in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring), 2017. 25(5): p. 892-900. [Read this study]

35. Haskey, N. and D.L. Gibson, An Examination of Diet for the Maintenance of Remission in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Nutrients, 2017. 9(3): p. 259. [Read this study]

36. Irish, A.K., et al., Randomized control trial evaluation of a modified Paleolithic dietary intervention in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. Degener Neurol Neuromuscul Dis, 2017. 7: p. 1-18. [Read this study]

37. Lee, J.E., et al., A Multimodal, Nonpharmacologic Intervention Improves Mood and Cognitive Function in People with Multiple Sclerosis. J Am Coll Nutr, 2017. 36(3): p. 150-168. [Read this study]

38. Obert, J., et al., Popular Weight Loss Strategies: a Review of Four Weight Loss Techniques. Curr Gastroenterol Rep, 2017. 19(12): p. 61. [Read this study]

39. Otten, J., et al., Benefits of a Paleolithic diet with and without supervised exercise on fat mass, insulin sensitivity, and glycemic control: a randomized controlled trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev, 2017. 33(1). [Read this study]

40. Stomby, A., et al., A Paleolithic Diet with and without Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Increases Functional Brain Responses and Hippocampal Volume in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes. Front Aging Neurosci, 2017. 9: p. 391. [Read this study]

41. Whalen, KA., et al., Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores Are Inversely Associated With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Adult. J Nutr. 2017 Apr;147(4):612-620. [Read this study]


42. Blomquist, C., et al., Decreased lipogenesis-promoting factors in adipose tissue in postmenopausal women with overweight on a Paleolithic-type diet. Eur J Nutr, 2018. 57(8): p. 2877-2886. [Read this study]

43. Cheng, E., et al., Associations of evolutionary-concordance diet, Mediterranean diet and evolutionary-concordance lifestyle pattern scores with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Br J Nutr, 2018: p. 1-10. [Read this study]

44. Genoni, A., et al., A Paleolithic diet lowers resistant starch intake but does not affect serum trimethylamine-N-oxide concentrations in healthy women. Br J Nutr, 2018: p. 1-14. [Read this study]

45. Haridass, V., et al., Diet Quality Scores Inversely Associated with Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk Are Not Associated with Premenopausal Breast Cancer Risk in the California Teachers Study. J Nutr, 2018. 148(11): p. 1830-1837. [Read this study]

46. Manousou, S., et al., A Paleolithic-type diet results in iodine deficiency: a 2-year randomized trial in postmenopausal obese women. Eur J Clin Nutr, 2018. 72(1): p. 124-129. [Read this study]

47. Otten, J., et al., A heterogeneous response of liver and skeletal muscle fat to the combination of a Paleolithic diet and exercise in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia, 2018. 61(7): p. 1548-1559. [Read this study]

48. Popp, C.J., et al., The Effectiveness of MyPlate and Paleolithic-based Diet Recommendations, both with and without Exercise, on Aerobic Fitness, Muscular Strength and Anaerobic Power in Young Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Int J Exerc Sci, 2018. 11(2): p. 921-933. [Read this study]

49. van Niekerk, G., et al., Nutrient excess and autophagic deficiency: explaining metabolic diseases in obesity. Metabolism, 2018. 82: p. 14-21. [Read this study]

50. Wahls, T., et al., Dietary approaches to treat MS-related fatigue: comparing the modified Paleolithic (Wahls Elimination) and low saturated fat (Swank) diets on perceived fatigue in persons with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 2018. 19(1): p. 309. [Read this study]


51. Barone, M., et al., Gut Microbiome Response to a Modern Paleolithic Diet in a Western Lifestyle Contex. PLoS One. 2019 Aug 8;14(8):e0220619. [Read this study]

52. Britto, S., et al., Carbohydrate Monotony as Protection and Treatment for Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2019 Jul 25;13(7):942-948. [Read this study]

53. Churuangsuk, C., et al., Impacts of Carbohydrate-Restricted Diets on Micronutrient Intakes and Status: A Systematic Review. Obes Rev. 2019 Aug;20(8):1132-1147. [Read this study]

54. de Menezes, EVA., et al., Influence of Paleolithic Diet on Anthropometric Markers in Chronic Diseases: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutr J. 2019 Jul 23;18(1):41. [Read this study]

55. Evans, RDR., Emerging Evidence of an Effect of Salt on Innate and Adaptive Immunity. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2019 Dec 1;34(12):2007-2014. [Read this study]

56. Genoni, A., et al., Long-term Paleolithic Diet Is Associated With Lower Resistant Starch Intake, Different Gut Microbiota Composition and Increased Serum TMAO Concentration. Eur J Nutr. 2019 Jul 5. [Read this study] [Read our review]

57. Ghaedi, E., et al., Effects of a Paleolithic Diet on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Adv Nutr. 2019 Jul 1;10(4):634-646. [Read this study]

58. Gupta, L., et al., Palaeolithic Diet in Diabesity and Endocrinopathies – A Vegan’s Perspective. European Endocrinology, 2019. 15: p. 77. [Read this study]

59. Gyorkos, A., et al., Carbohydrate-restricted Diet and High-intensity Interval Training Exercise Improve Cardio-metabolic and Inflammatory Profiles in Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Crossover Trial. Cureus. 2019 Sep 9;11(9):e5604. [Read this study]

60. Hirahatake, KM., Diet Quality and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Postmenopausal Women With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Women's Health Initiative. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019 Oct;8(19):e013249. [Read this study]

61. Hsieh, MS., et al., Nutritional and Dietary Strategy in the Clinical Care of Inflammatory Bowel Diseas. J Formos Med Assoc. 2019 Oct 14:S0929-6646(19)30468-1. [Read this study]

62. Kopp, W., How Western Diet And Lifestyle Drive The Pandemic Of Obesity And Civilization Diseases. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2019 Oct 24;12:2221-2236. [Read this study]

63. Lavie, M., et al., Paleolithic Diet During pregnancy-A Potential Beneficial Effect on Metabolic Indices and Birth Weight. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2019 Nov;242:7-11. [Read this study]

64. Otten, J., et al., Postprandial Levels of GLP-1, GIP and Glucagon After 2 Years of Weight Loss With a Paleolithic Diet: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Healthy Obese Women. Eur J Endocrinol. 2019 Jun 1;180(6):417-427. [Read this study]

65. Wahls, TL., et al., Review of Two Popular Eating Plans Within the Multiple Sclerosis Community: Low Saturated Fat and Modified Paleolithic. Nutrients. 2019 Feb 7;11(2):352. [Read this study]


66. Chen, X., et al., Errors in Meta-Analysis Should Be Corrected: Comment on "Effects of a Paleolithic Diet on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials". Adv Nutr. 2020 Apr 29:nmaa035. [Read this study]

67. Jamka, M., et al., The Effect of the Paleolithic Diet vs. Healthy Diets on Glucose and Insulin Homeostasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Clin Med. 2020 Jan 21;9(2):296. [Read this study]

68. Jospe, MR., et al., Intermittent Fasting, Paleolithic, or Mediterranean Diets in the Real World: Exploratory Secondary Analyses of a Weight-Loss Trial That Included Choice of Diet and Exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 Mar 1;111(3):503-514. [Read this study]

69. Lee, JE., et al., A Modified MCT-Based Ketogenic Diet Increases Plasma β-Hydroxybutyrate but Has Less Effect on Fatigue and Quality of Life in People With Multiple Sclerosis Compared to a Modified Paleolithic Diet: A Waitlist-Controlled, Randomized Pilot Study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2020 Mar 26:1-13. [Read this study]

70. Stomby, A., Diet-induced Weight Loss Alters Hepatic Glucocorticoid Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Eur J Endocrinol. 2020 Apr;182(4):447-457. [Read this study]

71. de la O, V., et al., Scoping Review of Paleolithic Dietary Patterns: A Definition Proposal. Nutr Res Rev. 2020 Jun 2:1-45. [Read this study]

72. Zampelas, A., et al., Dietary Patterns and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review of the Evidence. Proc Nutr Soc. 2020 Feb;79(1):68-75. [Read this study]

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