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Not Your Grandmother’s Organic Food

By Casey Thaler, B.A., NASM-CPT, FNS
August 4, 2014
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In honor of National Farmers Market Week,1 it’s time we discuss how our food has changed in the past 100 years.2 From soil degradation,3 to fertilizer use,4 to pesticides,5 to genetically modified organisms (GMOs),6 and to why "organic and local" is always the best option.7

Soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental and public health problems facing human society.8 Studies show soil is being lost from agricultural areas 10 to 40 times faster than the rate of soil formation,9 which could be consequentially disastrous for the human race.

Economically, soil erosion costs roughly $37.6 billion, annually.10 Another cause for concern is declining nutrient density. Three studies of historical food composition data found declines of 5% to 40% (or more) in minerals of vegetables.11

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Apparent changes in nutrient concentrations in 20 vegetables and 20 fruits with 95% confidence intervals (partially recalculated from Mayer, 1997; U.K. data, 1930s to 1980s).

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Eighty-year changes in nutrient concentrations found in a study of 45 maize cultivars grown side by side in Iowa and California (means ± 95% confidence intervals).

Fertilizers are made largely from nitrogen and hydrogen.12 These two elements are combined to make anhydrous ammonia.13 This is the basis for all synthetic nitrogen fertilizers.14 The hydrogen source in this process is natural gas, a non-renewable resource.15 The high cost of fertilizer production is also largely in part due to hydrogen.16 So, our current system, which allows us to produce enough food for our ever-expanding population,17 is reliant on a non-renewable fossil fuel.18 Currently, global hydrogen production is 48% from natural gas, 30% from oil, and 18% from coal.19

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54 out of 86 different transgenic events (unique insertions of foreign DNA) in the US food supply contain portions of this gene. Researchers themselves concluded that this "might result in unintended phenotypic changes." The repercussions are undeniable.

So, what is the best option for consumers? Well, in the spirit of this celebratory week, local and organic will almost always produce the best results.27 Sadly, this is sometimes impacted by socioeconomic status.28 However, in a recent study researchers found the healthiest diets cost about $1.50 more per day than the least healthy diets.29 "Food deserts" are common, these days.30 Small, local, food stores can have a positive impact on vegetable intake, especially in urban areas.31

Adopting a Paleo Diet will help keep your food local, organic, and hopefully free of pesticides and GMOs. Try to celebrate the farmer’s market every week, not just one week out of the year. Real people, with good intentions, grow our best food. Voice your opinion with your hard-earned dollar, and support them.

References

1. Available at: //blogs.usda.gov/2014/07/29/what-are-you-doing-for-national-farmers-market-week/. Accessed July 30, 2014.

2. Smith JL. Atwater to the present: what have we learned about our food supply?. J Nutr. 1994;124(9 Suppl):1780S-1782S.

3. Macías FA, Oliveros-bastidas A, Marín D, Castellano D, Simonet AM, Molinillo JM. Degradation studies on benzoxazinoids. Soil degradation dynamics of (2R)-2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-4-hydroxy-(2H)- 1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIBOA-Glc) and its degradation products, phytotoxic allelochemicals from Gramineae. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53(3):554-61.

4. Olson RA. Fertilizers for food production vs energy needs and environmental quality. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 1977;1(3):311-26.

5. Jackson RJ, Fan AM. Pesticides in food. West J Med. 1990;152(3):286-7.

6. Dona A, Arvanitoyannis IS. Health risks of genetically modified foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2009;49(2):164-75.

7. Pelletier JE, Laska MN, Neumark-sztainer D, Story M. Positive attitudes toward organic, local, and sustainable foods are associated with higher dietary quality among young adults. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013;113(1):127-32.

8. Pimentel, D. (2006). Soil Erosion: A Food and Environmental Threat. Environ Dev Sustain, [online] 8(1), pp.119-137.

9. Pimentel D, Burgess M. Soil Erosion Threatens Food Production. Agriculture. 2013; 3(3):443-463.

10. Uri ND. The environmental implications of soil erosion in the United States. Environ Monit Assess. 2001;66(3):293-312.

11. Davis, D. (2009). Declining fruit and vegetable nutrient composition: What is the evidence?. HortScience, 44(1), pp.15--19.

12. Available at: //www.newyorker.com/tech/elements/the-fertilizer-bomb. Accessed July 30, 2014.

13. Fitzgerald SD, Grooms DL, Scott MA, Clarke KR, Rumbeiha WK. Acute anhydrous ammonia intoxication in cattle. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006;18(5):485-9.

14. Mukome F, Doane T, Silva L, Parikh S, Horwath W. 2013. Testing protocol ensures the authenticity of organic fertilizers. Calif Agr 67(4):210-216. DOI: 10.3733/ca.v067n04p210

15. Available at: //www.soilassociation.org/motherearth/viewarticle/articleid/3205/the-problems-with-manufactured-nitrogen-fertilisers. Accessed July 30, 2014.

16. Available at: //www.sfgate.com/homeandgarden/article/The-case-against-synthetic-fertilizers-2506802.php. Accessed July 30, 2014.

17. Keinan A, Clark AG. Recent explosive human population growth has resulted in an excess of rare genetic variants. Science. 2012;336(6082):740-3.

18. Cheng S, Logan BE. Sustainable and efficient biohydrogen production via electrohydrogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007;104(47):18871-3.

19. Demirel, Y. (2012). Energy. 1st ed. London: Springer, p.57.

20. Dich J, Zahm SH, Hanberg A, Adami HO. Pesticides and cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 1997;8(3):420-43.

21. Aktar MW, Sengupta D, Chowdhury A. Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards. Interdiscip Toxicol. 2009;2(1):1-12.

22. Varzakas TH, Arvanitoyannis IS, Baltas H. The politics and science behind GMO acceptance. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2007;47(4):335-61.

23. Available at: //www.wholefoodsmarket.com/gmo-your-right-know. Accessed July 30, 2014.

24. Van eenennaam AL. GMOs in animal agriculture: time to consider both costs and benefits in regulatory evaluations. J Anim Sci Biotechnol. 2013;4(1):37.

25. Podevin N, Du jardin P. Possible consequences of the overlap between the CaMV 35S promoter regions in plant transformation vectors used and the viral gene VI in transgenic plants. GM Crops Food. 2012;3(4):296-300.

26. Available at: //www.independentsciencenews.org/health/regulators-discover-a-hidden-viral-gene-in-commercial-gmo-crops/. Accessed July 30, 2014.

27. Crinnion WJ. Organic foods contain higher levels of certain nutrients, lower levels of pesticides, and may provide health benefits for the consumer. Altern Med Rev. 2010;15(1):4-12.

28. Curl CL, Beresford SA, Hajat A, et al. Associations of organic produce consumption with socioeconomic status and the local food environment: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). PLoS ONE. 2013;8(7):e69778.

29. Rao, M., A. Afshin, G. Singh, and D. Mozaffarian. "Do Healthier Foods and Diet Patterns Cost More than Less Healthy Options? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis." BMJ Open 3.12 (2013): E004277.

30. Pearson T, Russell J, Campbell MJ, Barker ME. Do 'food deserts' influence fruit and vegetable consumption?--A cross-sectional study. Appetite. 2005;45(2):195-7.

31. Bodor JN, Rose D, Farley TA, Swalm C, Scott SK. Neighbourhood fruit and vegetable availability and consumption: the role of small food stores in an urban environment. Public Health Nutr. 2008;11(4):413-20.

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