Tag Archives: paleo

Mexican Chicken Stuffed PeppersIt’s International Spicy Food Day and we’re heating things up with a recipe from our new cookbook, Real Paleo Fast & Easy. Our Mexican Chicken Stuffed Peppers are colorful crowd-pleasers that will satisfy everyone’s spicy cravings!

Tip: Blanching the pepper halves in boiling water for a couple minutes keeps them crisp enough to hold the hearty filling but soft enough to eat—without having to bake them in the oven.

Ingredients

  • 2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
  • ½ cup chopped onion
  • 4 cloves garlic, minced
  • 1 medium jalapeño or serrano chile, seeded and chopped
  • 2 pounds ground uncooked chicken or turkey
  • 2 tablespoons Mexican Seasoning (recipe below)
  • 1 14.5 ounce can no-salt-added fire-roasted diced tomatoes
  • ½ cup chopped fresh cilantro
  • 4 medium red, yellow, and/or orange sweet peppers
  • Lime wedges

Instructions

In a large skillet heat oil over medium heat. Add onion, garlic, and chile; cook and stir 2 minutes. Add ground chicken; cook until no longer pink. Sprinkle with Mexican Seasoning; stir well. Stir in undrained tomatoes. Bring to boiling; reduce heat. Simmer, uncovered, 5 to 7 minutes or until most of the liquid has evaporated. Stir in ¼ cup of the cilantro.

Meanwhile, cut sweet peppers in half vertically (from stems to bottoms). Remove and discard stems, seeds, and membranes. In a large pot blanch peppers in boiling water 2 to 3 minutes or just until tender; drain. Fill peppers with chicken mixture.

For each serving, arrange 2 pepper halves on a plate. Sprinkle with the remaining cilantro and serve with lime wedges.

Serves 4

Mexican Seasoning Ingredients
  • 1 tablespoon cumin seeds
  • 4 teaspoons paprika
  • 1 tablespoon preservative-free granulated garlic
  • 1 teaspoon dried oregano
  • ½ to 1 teaspoon ground chipotle pepper or cayenne pepper (optional)
  • ½ teaspoon ground cinnamon
  • ¼ teaspoon ground saffron
Mexican Seasoning Instructions

In a dry small skillet toast cumin seeds over medium-low heat 1 to 2 minutes or until fragrant, shaking skillet occasionally. Remove from heat; cool 2 minutes. Transfer seeds to a spice grinder; grind to a powder. Transfer cumin to a small bowl. Stir in paprika, garlic, oregano, chipotle pepper (if using), cinnamon, and saffron. Store in an airtight container at room temperature up to 6 months. Stir or shake before using. Makes about ¼ cup.

Oyters on Grill |The Paleo Diet

Zinc! It’s the essential mineral that’s praised by many advocates involved in the Paleo community. Most people generally recognize zinc for its reputation as a potent cold and flu virus prevention solution, but its numerous benefits also extend beyond its role as an immunity-boosting mineral.

Ensuring adequate zinc intake in one’s diet is absolutely necessary for achieving long term health goals while following an ancestral eating plan. Zinc is essential for maintaining numerous physiological functions within the human body including tissue and epithelial integrity, immune system regulation, cellular growth, gut health, and inflammation suppression. The current USA government’s recommended daily allowance (RDA) for zinc averages in at approximately 10 mg. The USA RDA for zinc might be adequate for maintaining proper zinc levels for most healthy human beings that do not suffer from a zinc deficiency, but higher short-term dosages are likely needed to correct a deficiency. Physical indications of zinc deficiency include but are not limited to frequent viral infections, white spots or streaks on the fingernails, poor physical growth in childhood, hair loss, impaired vision, diarrhea, acne, dandruff, chronic dry skin, and impaired mental functioning (i.e. depression, anxiety, brain fog). It’s worth noting that all of the listed conditions can also result from the manifestation of other nutrient and mineral imbalances, and ensuring a highly varied nutrient rich ancestral diet that is rich in omega-3’s is crucial to preventing and resolving any of the aforementioned health issues.

Zinc in excess can be equally problematic as zinc deficiency. The daily upper limit threshold for zinc in healthy individuals is about 40 mg for adults over 19 and 25mg for those under 19. Excessive zinc consumption is characterized by severe headaches, nausea, vomiting, and decreased appetite. Over the long term, excessive zinc intake in the absence of copper will result in the gradual depletion of copper from the human body. For this reason it is recommended that those looking to supplement zinc in their diets should avoid zinc dietary supplements and instead opt for “au-naturel” food-based sources of zinc that are inherently proportionately balanced with copper.

Those looking to ensure optimum zinc intake in their diet must decide whether to source their zinc from animal sources or plant sources. Below are two tables demonstrating a handful of the highest ranking sources of zinc from both plants and animals. The zinc content of each source is listed in mg. Note that many of the listed zinc-rich plant foods do not adhere to the Paleo lifestyle.

Zinc Sources Table | The Paleo Diet

When examining the table above, it becomes obvious that ratio of zinc in animal-based foods is significantly higher than the ratio of zinc found in plant-based foods. Additionally, all of the animal-based sources of zinc naturally have appropriate zinc to copper ratios, so you don’t have to worry about creating a mineral imbalance while consuming these foods.

Now you might be wondering if it is still worth considering plant-based sources of zinc in your diet. From the tables above, it is immediately apparent that one would have to consume much higher quantities of zinc-containing plant foods to achieve the same proportion of zinc found in the animal foods listed above. Besides pumpkin seeds and sunflower seeds, all of the other listed plant-based zinc sources are off limits for Paleo followers. Additionally, it is worth mentioning that many of the zinc-rich plant foods such as legumes, seeds, nuts, and grains contain phytates (i.e. phytic acid). Phytates have been demonstrated to bind to zinc and other important dietary minerals such as iron and manganese. The bonding of phytates with zinc and other minerals upon digestion drastically reduces your body’s ability to absorb these key minerals, thus making you more prone to mineral deficiencies. Animal foods do not inhibit the absorption of zinc or other minerals and instead aid in absorption during digestion.

Oysters rank supreme amongst all other zinc containing food sources available for human consumption, and thus are ideal for treating individuals with zinc deficiency, and for those simply looking to incorporate zinc-rich food sources into their diets.

Oysters have long been revered for their rich taste and nutritional qualities across all parts of the globe. Preference for oyster consumption has shown up in historical documentation dating back to the ancient Greeks and Chinese. In fact, in Europe up until the 18th century oysters were considered a “luxury” food only reserved for the highest classes. Within the colonies of North America, oyster consumption was never restricted to the rich and thus most colonists and Native Americans consumed oysters regularly. The 19th century in The United States was marked by the widespread establishment of “oyster bars” that originated on the eastern seaboard and quickly became popular throughout the west. By 1881 there were nearly 379 oyster bars in Philadelphia alone! Zinc deficiency was likely not a major problem for oyster-loving 19th century Americans.

Nowadays oysters are becoming an increasingly obsolete food source. Oysters can be difficult to source fresh, especially if you are like myself and live thousands of miles inland from the nearest ocean. The best economical solution for inlanders is to purchase canned oysters from your local grocery store. A large majority of the oysters on store shelves are canned in cottonseed oil, which you will definitely want to avoid if you are sticking to a Paleo eating plan. Fortunately, Crown Prince offers a line of smoked oysters that are canned in extra-virgin olive oil. I have seen these oysters available in Sprouts, Whole Foods, and Trader Joe’s for about $2 – $3 per can. If you are not quite adjusted to the “delicious” taste of oysters yet, try topping them with a few drops of Paleo-friendly hot sauce.

References

1. Berger, Abi. “What does zinc do?.” BMJ 325.7372 (2002): 1062.
2. Hambidge, M. (2000). Human zinc deficiency. The Journal of nutrition,130(5), 1344S-1349S.
3. Lönnerdal, B. O. (2000). Dietary factors influencing zinc absorption. The Journal of nutrition, 130(5), 1378S-1383S.
4. Ma, J., & Betts, N. M. (2000). Zinc and copper intakes and their major food sources for older adults in the 1994–96 continuing survey of food intakes by individuals (CSFII). The Journal of nutrition, 130(11), 2838-2843.
5. Office of Dietary Supplements – Zinc. (n.d.). Retrieved December 28, 2015, from https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Zinc-HealthProfessional/

Chicken Mushroom Ramen | The Paleo DietIt’s National Soup Month and we’re celebrating with this mouthwatering recipe from our new cookbook, Real Paleo Fast & Easy. This warming, aromatic bowl of goodness proves that even Paleo enthusiasts can enjoy a big soupy bowl of Asian-style noodles. This noodle bowl is so fresh and delicious, you won’t miss the grain based variety a bit.

Ingredients

  • 1 medium zucchini
  • 4 skinless, boneless chicken thighs
  • 1 teaspoon salt-free Chinese five-spice powder
  • ½ teaspoon black pepper
  • 8 cups unsalted chicken stock
  • 1 1-inch piece ginger, peeled and cut into matchstick-size pieces
  • 2 cloves garlic, peeled and thinly sliced
  • 4 ounces shiitake mushrooms, stems removed and sliced
  • 5 ounces fresh baby spinach, roughly chopped
  • 2 hard-cooked eggs, halved lengthwise
  • Sliced scallions
  • Crushed red pepper (optional)

Instructions

To make zucchini noodles, use a julienne slicer or spiralizer to cut zucchini into thin slices. Set zucchini noodles aside.

Preheat broiler. Rub chicken thighs with five-spice powder; sprinkle with black pepper. Place chicken thighs on a foil-lined baking sheet. Broil 4 to 5 inches from the heat 8 to 10 minutes or until done (175°F), turning once halfway through broiling. Let stand 10 minutes. Slice chicken and set aside.

Meanwhile, in a large saucepan combine stock, ginger, and garlic. Bring to boiling; reduce heat. Add mushrooms; simmer, uncovered, 2 minutes. Add zucchini noodles; simmer 1 minute. Remove saucepan from heat. Add spinach; stir just until wilted. Stir in chicken.

Divide among four bowls; top with hard-cooked egg halves and scallions. If desired, sprinkle with crushed red pepper.

Serves 4

2016 Fireworks | The Paleo Diet

Paleo critics are always voicing unsubstantiated claims. Their attacks are easily countered, but they sometimes create confusion and discouragement, especially for those who are new to Paleo. The British Dietetic Association, for example, has called Paleo a “time consuming, socially-isolating diet.” If you’re just starting out with Paleo, it’s probably better to get your advice from people who actually follow the lifestyle, not from critics who simply parrot talking points.

The Paleo Diet shouldn’t be time consuming or socially isolating, nor should it be overly expensive. Above all, the Paleo Diet is flexible. Whatever your personal circumstances, you can customize the Paleo Diet so it works for you. Here are 5 great tips to get you started.

1. Master the Slow-Cooker

The slow-cooker is one of your best kitchen-friends. It saves you time and money while helping you cook meals that taste like they were prepared by a professional chef…or by your grandmother. With a slow-cooker, you can save money on meat by buying the cheaper, tougher cuts, which are just as tasty (and nutritious) after being cooked for several hours.

The slow-cooker also saves you time, because the cooking is passive. Slow-cookers are designed to be safe even when they are unattended. Most of us would be wary about leaving the oven or stove turned on while we were away from the house for several hours. With a slow-cooker, however, this is perfectly acceptable.

2. Eating at Restaurants

Paleo need not be “socially isolating.” Sure, if your friends are going out for pizza and sodas, you should probably pass, but at most restaurants you’ll find plenty of Paleo-compliant choices. Go for grilled meat or fish plus steamed vegetables or a salad. Salad dressings will typically have canola or other vegetable oils, so ask your server to bring you olive oil and lemon juice on the side.

3. Lunch On the Go

The reality of our modern lifestyles is that you probably won’t be able to eat every meal at home. Get into the habit of taking your lunch with you, especially if you work at an office. Make a Paleo meal, preferably something that tastes good cold, and get some glass or BPA-free plastic storage containers with lids that lock into place. Usually you can find mini-size containers for sauces and dressing, so as to avoid soggy salads.

4. Strategic Leftovers

Another key to minimizing kitchen time is using leftovers strategically. This starts by intentionally cooking extras, with the plan of using these extras for upcoming meals. For example, you’re cooking steaks. Cook one or two more than you need. Let them cool and then refrigerate. Later, slice thinly with a sharp knife. Add this to a salad. Congratulations, you’re salad has just become a complete meal. You can do the same thing with turkey, duck, lamb, and other meats.

5. Making Fabulous Sauces

A great way to fancy up your vegetable dishes is with sauces. Sure, you could just drizzle some coconut oil or olive oil on salads and steamed vegetables, but sauces bring these foods to another level, which might be important for you, especially if you are seeking more variety and when cooking for family or friends.

Here’s a simple sauce strategy. You’ll need a blender, preferably a small one. Blend a small handful of nuts (cashews, almonds, or macadamia) with a couple spoons of olive oil, a few spoons of lemon juice, and a handful of washed herbs (stems removed), like parsley, cilantro, or mint. Add just enough water to achieve a smooth, creamy texture.

You’ll find plenty more tips and tricks throughout this website. Start the New Year off right. Make Paleo work for you!

Fire | The Paleo Diet
In August of 2014, Dr. Peter Turchin of Cliodynamica published a blog post titled “Paleo Diet and Fire”. In it, he discusses Richard Wrangham’s book Catching Fire: How Cooking Makes Us Human. The article explores Richard Wrangham’s theory that the significant jump in the cranial capacity of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens was fueled by fire; specifically, the ability to cook underground roots and tubers.

A student of Dr. Cordain’s read the post and brought it to Dr. Cordain’s attention. Dr. Cordain disagreed with Wrangham’s hypothesis and reached out to Dr. Turchin to discuss the theory. Dr. Cordain argued that the ability to control fire came quite late in our evolutionary history, thus roots and tubers that need to be cooked for consumption should not be part of the Paleo Diet. Following the discussion, Dr. Turchin published a follow-up article titled “When Did Human Beings Start Using Fire? Wrangham versus Cordain”.

In the new article, Dr. Turchin countered that “any alternative to the Wrangham hypothesis would have to come up with an explanation of where the calories came from and, even more importantly, how early humans could afford to shrink their guts.”

After Dr. Turchin published the article, he invited Dr. Cordain to comment. Dr. Cordain crafted a thorough response, which is featured as a guest post on Dr. Turchin’s blog. Read Dr. Cordain’s full response here »

The Paleo Diet | Christmas Nuts

When it comes to the holidays, it can be much more difficult to stick to your Paleo Diet. But – fortunately – there are many ways to “Paleo-fy” your favorite holiday meals. Today, I will be covering how you can transform a traditional Christmas dinner – into a much healthier one. Forget the empty calories of stuffing, rolls and pumpkin pie. Instead, say hello to some delicious sweet potatoes, free-range organic turkey and a large helping of brain-friendly vegetables! While your loved ones may be passed out on the couch after dinner, you will be energized, alert – and maybe even ready to run a 5K. So without further ado, here is my guide on how to have the best Paleo Christmas dinner.

Forget the Rolls, Bread, Mashed Potatoes and Stuffing

As I have covered many times on The Paleo Diet, gluten and pseudograins are not ideal for your body (or brain).1,2,3 And as Dr. Cordain has written, white potatoes are not the healthiest choice for you, either.4 The first difference between a healthy, Paleo Christmas dinner and the more gluttonous traditional version? Sweeping away all the extra, empty calories! As tough as it may be, say goodbye to the huge doses of stuffing, bread, mashed potatoes and rolls. But just because you might be skipping these – does not mean you necessarily have to forget about all forms of carbohydrates.

Replace Them with Sweet Potatoes and Mashed Cauliflower

Sweet potatoes are much different than the traditional white potato, and make a great substitute for holiday meals. And if you are missing the mashed potatoes – try mashing up some cauliflower instead.5 Once you add some grass-fed butter, herbs, spices and perhaps even some other vegetables, to this mashed mix, you will hardly notice the difference! Not only are you avoiding the numerous problems with white potatoes – you are getting a much bigger dose of nutrients than you normally would, at a traditional holiday meal.6,7,8,9,10,11

Keep the Turkey, But Make Sure It Is Properly Sourced

The best news about a Paleo holiday dinner? You can still indulge in the turkey! That’s right, keep the bird on the table. However, it is important to make sure you get a free-range, organic turkey. Though the cost may be slightly more, the benefits of properly sourced meat are definitely worth it.12,13,14,15 For example, an organic, free-range turkey has absolutely zero of the hormones or antibiotics, which are usually found in most meat.

The most commonly asked question I get about buying this premium type of bird is ‘do I really need to spend this much more on a turkey?’. While there is little doubt that a high quality turkey may cost more upfront – most people have no problem paying the extra cost, once they realize exactly what they are avoiding.16,17,18,19

For example, a regular turkey is usually fed a diet which consists mostly of grain and corn. This means they are usually also consuming very large amounts of pesticides – as well as GMOs. These unhealthy elements can end up making their way into your body, as a result. 99% of the time, grain-fed meat is also lower in omega-3 fatty acids, as well as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) – as well as being much, much higher in omega-6.20,21 As I have covered previously, this is far from ideal.22

Make It More Colorful, By Adding Vegetables and Fruits

The traditional Christmas dinner has the same old, regular line-up of vegetables – but it doesn’t necessarily have to be this way. Try making a super-nutritious salad, filled with cancer-preventing kale, spinach and broccoli.23,24,25,26 Or try some other nutritious sides, like yucca root, butternut squash soup or a Swiss chard salad. Let your imagination run wild here, and avoid the excess sugar and carb loads, which plague nearly every holiday meal.

Increase the Fat Content

Traditional holiday meals are also plagued with very low amounts of heart (and brain) healthy fats. Try making your big meal more Paleo, by adding in some generous amounts of extra virgin olive oil, coconut oil and avocados. Numerous scientific studies tout the myriad of health benefits shown, when consuming these fats.27,28,29,30,31,32 Dig in!

What about Dessert?

While it is very tempting to indulge in pumpkin pie or some other form of sweets after the big meal, it does not make sense, if you truly wish to stay healthy. I have written on the ills of sugar numerous times, and it is a much better idea to skip dessert, altogether.33,34 Plan a healthy activity for after dinner, like a short hike or run, that way you have something to look forward to. If you absolutely must indulge, pick a very high quality, organic dark chocolate. And keep your portion small!

Keep It Fun!

Ultimately, holiday meals are about being together with your loved ones. While consuming lots of carbohydrates can produce serotonin (a neurotransmitter closely related to your mood) – this is artificial.35,36,37,38 Find gratitude and happiness in your own life, and keep your holidays fun – not stressful! Remember to avoid caffeine as well (especially in excess), as it can make you more anxious and tense – which is the last thing you want during the stress-filled holidays.39,40

As you can see, you may have to give up some of your favorite holiday foods, but the health benefits of leaving these foods out, are definitely much better in the long run. In closing, I hope this guide has provided you with a plethora of good ideas, about having a much healthier Paleo meal, this holiday season. I wish you, and your loved ones, the best!

REFERENCES

[1]Available at: http://thepaleodiet.com/gluten-brain/. Accessed December 14, 2015.

[2]Available at: http://thepaleodiet.com/celiac-disease-gluten-children/. Accessed December 14, 2015.

[3]Available at: http://thepaleodiet.com/stop-settling-for-pseudo-health-and-say-no-to-pseudograins/. Accessed December 14, 2015.

[4]Available at: http://thepaleodiet.com/are-potatoes-paleo/. Accessed December 14, 2015.

[5]Available at: http://thepaleodiet.com/sweet-potatoes-paleo/. Accessed December 14, 2015.

[6]Cordain L, Eaton SB, Sebastian A, et al. Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(2):341-54.

[7]Available at: http://thepaleodiet.com/dr-cordains-rebuttal-to-us-news-and-world-report/. Accessed December 14, 2015.

[8]Frassetto LA, Schloetter M, Mietus-Synder M, Morris RC, Jr., Sebastian A: Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet. Eur J Clin Nutr 2009.

[9]Jönsson T, Granfeldt Y, Ahrén B, Branell UC, Pålsson G, Hansson A, Söderström M, Lindeberg S. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2009;8:35

[10]Jonsson T, Granfeldt Y, Erlanson-Albertsson C, Ahren B, Lindeberg S. A Paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2010 Nov 30;7(1):85

[11]Osterdahl M, Kocturk T, Koochek A, Wandell PE: Effects of a short-term intervention with a paleolithic diet in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 2008, 62(5):682-685.

[12]Forman J, Silverstein J. Organic foods: health and environmental advantages and disadvantages. Pediatrics. 2012;130(5):e1406-15.

[13]Chhabra R, Kolli S, Bauer JH. Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(1):e52988.

[14]Crinnion WJ. Organic foods contain higher levels of certain nutrients, lower levels of pesticides, and may provide health benefits for the consumer. Altern Med Rev. 2010;15(1):4-12.

[15]Kamihiro S, Stergiadis S, Leifert C, Eyre MD, Butler G. Meat quality and health implications of organic and conventional beef production. Meat Sci. 2015;100:306-18.

[16]Epstein SS. The chemical jungle: today’s beef industry. Int J Health Serv. 1990;20(2):277-80.

[17]Pan A, Malik VS, Hu FB. Exporting diabetes mellitus to Asia: the impact of Western-style fast food. Circulation. 2012;126(2):163-5.

[18]Hemeda HM. Microbiological investigation and nutritional evaluation of selected fast food meat. J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 1995;70(1-2):105-26.

[19]Prayson B, Mcmahon JT, Prayson RA. Fast food hamburgers: what are we really eating?. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2008;12(6):406-9.

[20]Ponnampalam EN, Mann NJ, Sinclair AJ. Effect of feeding systems on omega-3 fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and trans fatty acids in Australian beef cuts: potential impact on human health. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2006;15(1):21-9.

[21]Daley CA, Abbott A, Doyle PS, Nader GA, Larson S. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef. Nutr J. 2010;9:10.

[22]Available at: http://thepaleodiet.com/omega-3-vs-omega-6-rethinking-hypothesis/. Accessed December 14, 2015.

[23]Van poppel G, Verhoeven DT, Verhagen H, Goldbohm RA. Brassica vegetables and cancer prevention. Epidemiology and mechanisms. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;472:159-68.

[24]Maeda N, Matsubara K, Yoshida H, Mizushina Y. Anti-cancer effect of spinach glycoglycerolipids as angiogenesis inhibitors based on the selective inhibition of DNA polymerase activity. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2011;11(1):32-8.

[25]Verhoeven DT, Goldbohm RA, Van poppel G, Verhagen H, Van den brandt PA. Epidemiological studies on brassica vegetables and cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1996;5(9):733-48.

[26]Olsen H, Grimmer S, Aaby K, Saha S, Borge GI. Antiproliferative effects of fresh and thermal processed green and red cultivars of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala var. sabellica). J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60(30):7375-83.

[27]Lawrence GD. Dietary fats and health: dietary recommendations in the context of scientific evidence. Adv Nutr. 2013;4(3):294-302.

[28]Feinman RD. Saturated fat and health: recent advances in research. Lipids. 2010;45(10):891-2.

[29]Farr SA, Price TO, Dominguez LJ, et al. Extra virgin olive oil improves learning and memory in SAMP8 mice. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012;28(1):81-92.

[30]Virruso C, Accardi G, Colonna-romano G, Candore G, Vasto S, Caruso C. Nutraceutical properties of extra-virgin olive oil: a natural remedy for age-related disease?. Rejuvenation Res. 2014;17(2):217-20.

[31]Lou-bonafonte JM, Arnal C, Navarro MA, Osada J. Efficacy of bioactive compounds from extra virgin olive oil to modulate atherosclerosis development. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012;56(7):1043-57.

[32]Visioli F, Bernardini E. Extra virgin olive oil’s polyphenols: biological activities. Curr Pharm Des. 2011;17(8):786-804.

[33]Available at: http://thepaleodiet.com/sugar-is-killing-us/. Accessed December 14, 2015.

[34]Available at: http://thepaleodiet.com/neurobiology-sugar-cravings/. Accessed December 14, 2015.

[35]Wurtman RJ, Wurtman JJ. Brain serotonin, carbohydrate-craving, obesity and depression. Obes Res. 1995;3 Suppl 4:477S-480S.

[36]Wurtman RJ, Wurtman JJ. Carbohydrate craving, obesity and brain serotonin. Appetite. 1986;7 Suppl:99-103.

[37]Fernstrom JD. Carbohydrate ingestion and brain serotonin synthesis: relevance to a putative control loop for regulating carbohydrate ingestion, and effects of aspartame consumption. Appetite. 1988;11 Suppl 1:35-41.

[38]Wurtman RJ, Wurtman JJ. Do carbohydrates affect food intake via neurotransmitter activity?. Appetite. 1988;11 Suppl 1:42-7.

[39]Available at: http://thepaleodiet.com/caffeine-brain-part-1/. Accessed December 14, 2015.

[40]Available at: http://greatist.com/grow/negative-health-effects-of-caffeine. Accessed December 14, 2015.

rosemary-duck-3

Here’s a great recipe for the holidays. It’s a perfect dish to cook all afternoon with family or friends gathered at your house while the scent of rosemary slowly spreads from room to room.

The concept is simple and straightforward. We’re just stuffing a duck with orange pieces and rosemary and adding some root vegetables to the roasting pan. The flavors from the duck mix with the orange and rosemary to flavor the meat and the vegetables.

Normally you’ll end up buying the duck frozen. So if that’s the case, make sure it’s fully defrosted before you start cooking. Ideally you would transfer it from the freezer to the refrigerator and leave it there for about 24 hours.

Duck is quite fatty and during the cooking process, this fat slowly seeps out. Juices from the duck mix with juice from the oranges and with the duck fat; this entire mixture spreads around the roasting pan. To prevent the duck and vegetables from drying out, it’s critical that you use a baster to spread these juices around.

After about the first 45 minutes in the oven, you’ll want to remove the pan about once every 20 minutes. Tilt the pan to one side so all the juices gather there. Draw them into the baster and then baste the duck and the vegetables. Do this several times. If you don’t have a baster you can tilt the juices to one side and scoop them out with a large spoon.

The duck needs to cook a good 2.5 hours normally, depending on the size. When the meat is be very tender and the skin is dark brown and the legs pull easily away from the body, it should be done.

If you want some duck fat for future recipes, simply pour the remaining juices after cooking into a small mug or bowl. Put this in the refrigerator. The fat will separate and rise to the top.

Rosemary Orange Duck with Roasted Vegetables

rosemary-duck-1

Ingredients

  • 1 duck
  • 2-3 oranges (clementines also work nicely)
  • 1 bunch of rosemary
  • 5-6 carrots
  • 5-6 parsnips
  • 3 leeks
  • 3 cloves garlic, crushed
  • Freshly milled black pepper

rosemary-duck-2

Directions

  1. Crush the garlic in a garlic press. Cut the carrots and parsnips into small-bite pieces. Cut the leeks into 1-inch rounds.
  2. Mix all the vegetables with the crushed garlic and spread this mixture on the bottom of a roasting pan.
  3. Cut the oranges into quarters. Stuff the orange pieces and the rosemary into the cavity of the duck.
  4. Sprinkle the duck with some crushed black pepper.
  5. Place the duck on top of the roasted vegetables.
  6. Place the pan into the oven at 375F. Bake for about 45 minutes. Remove the pan from the oven and, using a baster, spread the juices over the duck and the vegetables. This helps keep them from drying out.
  7. Baste every 20 minutes or so until the duck is fully cooked. Total cooking time should be about 2.5 hours.

Serves 4

Junk Food | The Paleo Diet

While the title of this article may at first seem implausible (and somewhat scary), a new scientific study seems to show that an inborn preference for junk food is not only possible – it may be affecting more of us than ever could have possibly been imagined. For the first time in history, researchers for Obesity Society have identified two genetic variants, which help to change how the brain responds to high-calorie foods.1 2 While this is potentially terrible news for those of us who struggle to resist highly processed and manufactured foods – it also means there is possibly a way to stop this genetic variant from controlling our dietary choices. This could include changing how the brain processes junk food, changing how much people crave these foods, and even altering the brain’s dopamine system. There are even more potential treatments using this new information – including using gut hormones to act on dopamine brain cells.

To delve into further detail, researchers specifically found that two genetic variants – FTO and DRD2 – influenced brain activity related to the reward system. This occurred when subjects simply looked at pictures of high-calorie foods. As I’ve written previously, this is far from the first time neuroscience (or other scientific studies) have shown that some of our brains respond differently, to rewarding foods.3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 In early 2014, for example, a study was published which showed that not only did some people crave chocolate (while others did not) – but that there was literally different brain activity, in the two groups.12

Asmaro D, Liotti M. High-caloric and chocolate stimuli processing in healthy humans: an integration of functional imaging and electrophysiological findings. Nutrients. 2014;6(1):319-41.

In another, similar study, researchers found that by altering dopamine receptors (specifically D2 receptors) – they could cure binge eating.13 Unfortunately for us, that ground breaking study was done on rats – not humans. However, this is further evidence that our brain plays a fundamental role in overeating and cravings. In fact, it may be the excess stimulation of the nucleus accumbens (the ‘pleasure center’ of the brain) from junk food, which leads to obesity.14 15 16 17 18 19 20

How does this relate to our current world? Well, 70% of the United States is overweight, with 30% of us now being obese.21 What accounts for all these extra pounds? Certainly, as shown by research from Yale scientists, a hyper-stimulatory environment and excess advertisement of junk food – is a large part of the problem.22 23 24 But this data is compounded by other research, which shows that extended access to high-fat and high-sugar food, results in behavioral and physiological changes – which are similar to those caused by illegal drugs.25 [26] While a large portion of these corresponding studies were conducted on rats, this does not mean that the results will not translate to humans. Like many areas of scientific research, we simply need more data.

Baik JH. Dopamine signaling in food addiction: role of dopamine D2 receptors. BMB Rep. 2013;46(11):519-26.

As I’ve covered previously, the neurobiology of sugar addiction is fascinating as well.27 28 The brain is bombarded with an overwhelming amount of chemicals and reward, when you consume junk food.29 30 31 32 Over time, this leads to a higher quantity of junk food needing to be consumed, to achieve the same rewarding effect.33 34 35 So even for those of us who are not genetically susceptible to the temptations of junk food, we can alter our brain’s preferences and reward receptors, to become just as likely to crave it.36 37 38 39 40

Gómez-pinilla F. Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008;9(7):568-78.

The good side of all this bad news? Your brain can also be positively impacted by food.41 42 43 44 45 46 A Paleo diet, which is full of nutrient dense foods, will help keep you satiated, and keep your brain from craving high sugar, nutritionally empty choices. Be sure to load your plate with wild-caught fish (high in brain-friendly omega-3 fatty acids), healthy fats (like avocados) and complete sources of protein (like grass fed beef). You may indeed be hardwired for junk food – but that doesn’t mean you have to give in to temptation. Adopting a Paleo diet is associated with many different health benefits – many of which work to counteract the negative effects of junk food.47 48 49 50 What this means, is that you can improve your health drastically, by simply changing what’s on your plate. Start eating a Paleo diet today, and watch your health soar!

References

1. Available at: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151105103957.htm. Accessed November 23, 2015.

2. Available at: http://www.newswise.com/articles/are-you-hardwired-to-enjoy-high-calorie-foods-research-links-genes-to-heightened-brain-reward-responses-to-foods-high-in-fat-and-sugar. Accessed November 23, 2015.

3. Fortuna JL. The obesity epidemic and food addiction: clinical similarities to drug dependence. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2012;44(1):56-63.

4. Garber AK, Lustig RH. Is fast food addictive?. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2011;4(3):146-62.

5. Grimm O., Jacob M.J., Kroemer N.B., Krebs L., Vollstädt-Klein S., Kobiella A., Wolfensteller U., Smolka M.L. The personality trait self-directedness predicts the amygdala’s reaction to appetizing cues in fMRI. Appetite. 2012;58:1023–1029.

6. Macht M., Mueller J. Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states. Appetite.2007;49:667–674.

7. Kringelbach M.L. The human orbitofrontal cortex: Linking reward to hedonic experience. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 2005;6:691–702.

8. Francis S.T., Head K., Morris P.G., Macdonald I.A. The effect of flavanol-rich cocoa on the fMRI response to a cognitive task in healthy young people. J. Cardiovasc. Pharm. 2006;47:S215–S220.

9. Small D.M., Zatorre R.J., Dagher A., Evans A.C., Jones-Gotman M. Changes in brain activity related to eating chocolate: From pleasure to aversion. Brain. 2001;124:1720–1733.

10. Kemmotsu N., Murphy C. Restrained eaters show altered brain response to food odor. Physiol. Behav.2006;87:323–329.

11.  Blechert J., Feige B., Hajcak G., Tuschen-Caffier B. To eat or not to eat? Availability of food modulates the electrocortical response to food pictures in restrained eaters. Appetite. 2010;54:262–268.

12. Asmaro D, Liotti M. High-caloric and chocolate stimuli processing in healthy humans: an integration of functional imaging and electrophysiological findings. Nutrients. 2014;6(1):319-41.

13. Halpern CH, Tekriwal A, Santollo J, et al. Amelioration of binge eating by nucleus accumbens shell deep brain stimulation in mice involves D2 receptor modulation. J Neurosci. 2013;33(17):7122-9.

14. Lawrence NS, Hinton EC, Parkinson JA, Lawrence AD. Nucleus accumbens response to food cues predicts subsequent snack consumption in women and increased body mass index in those with reduced self-control. Neuroimage. 2012;63(1):415-22.

15. Salamone JD, Cousins MS, Mccullough LD, Carriero DL, Berkowitz RJ. Nucleus accumbens dopamine release increases during instrumental lever pressing for food but not free food consumption. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994;49(1):25-31.

16. Olausson P, Jentsch JD, Tronson N, Neve RL, Nestler EJ, Taylor JR. DeltaFosB in the nucleus accumbens regulates food-reinforced instrumental behavior and motivation. J Neurosci. 2006;26(36):9196-204.

17. Day JJ, Carelli RM. The nucleus accumbens and Pavlovian reward learning. Neuroscientist. 2007;13(2):148-59.

18. Pratt WE, Kelley AE. Nucleus accumbens acetylcholine regulates appetitive learning and motivation for food via activation of muscarinic receptors. Behav Neurosci. 2004;118(4):730-9.

19. Salamone JD, Correa M, Mingote S, Weber SM. Nucleus accumbens dopamine and the regulation of effort in food-seeking behavior: implications for studies of natural motivation, psychiatry, and drug abuse. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;305(1):1-8.

20. Demos KE, Heatherton TF, Kelley WM. Individual differences in nucleus accumbens activity to food and sexual images predict weight gain and sexual behavior. J Neurosci. 2012;32(16):5549-52.

21. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/obesity-overweight.htm. Accessed November 23, 2015.

22. Yokum S, Gearhardt AN, Harris JL, Brownell KD, Stice E. Individual differences in striatum activity to food commercials predict weight gain in adolescents. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(12):2544-51.

23. Udo T, Weinberger AH, Grilo CM, et al. Heightened vagal activity during high-calorie food presentation in obese compared with non-obese individuals–results of a pilot study. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2014;8(3):e201-98.

24. Gearhardt AN, Roberto CA, Seamans MJ, Corbin WR, Brownell KD. Preliminary validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale for children. Eat Behav. 2013;14(4):508-12.

25. Epstein DH, Shaham Y. Cheesecake-eating rats and the question of food addiction. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13(5):529-31.

26. Stockburger J., Schmälzle R., Flaisch T., Bublatzky F., Schupp H.T. The impact of hunger on food cue processing: An event-related brain potential study. Neuroimage. 2009;47:1819–1829.

27. Yang Q. Gain weight by “going diet?” Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010. Yale J Biol Med. 2010;83(2):101-8.

28. García-cáceres C, Tschöp MH. The emerging neurobiology of calorie addiction. Elife. 2014;3:e01928.

29. Norton P, Falciglia G, Gist D. Physiologic control of food intake by neural and chemical mechanisms. J Am Diet Assoc. 1993;93(4):450-4.

30. Wurtman RJ. Nutrients affecting brain composition and behavior. Integr Psychiatry. 1987;5(4):226-38.

31. Young SN. How to increase serotonin in the human brain without drugs. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2007;32(6):394-9.

32. Wang GJ, Volkow ND, Telang F, et al. Exposure to appetitive food stimuli markedly activates the human brain. Neuroimage. 2004;21(4):1790-7.

33. Baik JH. Dopamine signaling in food addiction: role of dopamine D2 receptors. BMB Rep. 2013;46(11):519-26.

34. Lietti C.V., Murray M.M., Hudry J., le Coutre J., Toepel U. The role of energetic value in dynamic brain response adaptation during repeated food image viewing. Appetite. 2012;58:11–18.

35. Meule A. Are certain foods addictive?. Front Psychiatry. 2014;5:38.

36. Davis C, Curtis C, Levitan RD, Carter JC, Kaplan AS, Kennedy JL. Evidence that ‘food addiction’ is a valid phenotype of obesity. Appetite. 2011;57(3):711-7.

37. Reward systems and food intake: role of opioids. International Journal of Obesity. 2009;:S54.

38. Naleid AM, Grace MK, Chimukangara M, Billington CJ, Levine AS. Paraventricular opioids alter intake of high-fat but not high-sucrose diet depending on diet preference in a binge model of feeding. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293(1):R99-105.

39. Woolley JD, Lee BS, Fields HL. Nucleus accumbens opioids regulate flavor-based preferences in food consumption. Neuroscience. 2006;143(1):309-17.

40. Zhang M, Gosnell BA, Kelley AE. Intake of high-fat food is selectively enhanced by mu opioid receptor stimulation within the nucleus accumbens. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998;285(2):908-14.

41. Gómez-pinilla F. Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008;9(7):568-78.

42. Bourre JM. Effects of nutrients (in food) on the structure and function of the nervous system: update on dietary requirements for brain. Part 1: micronutrients. J Nutr Health Aging. 2006;10(5):377-85.

43. Hill JO, Berridge K, Avena NM, et al. Neurocognition: the food–brain connection. Adv Nutr. 2014;5(5):544-6.

44. Armelagos GJ. Brain evolution, the determinates of food choice, and the omnivore’s dilemma. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014;54(10):1330-41.

45. Galland L. The gut microbiome and the brain. J Med Food. 2014;17(12):1261-72.

46. Lachance L, Ramsey D. Food, mood, and brain health: implications for the modern clinician. Mo Med. 2015;112(2):111-5.

47. Kowalski LM, Bujko J. Evaluation of biological and clinical potential of paleolithic diet.. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2012;63(1):9-15.

48. Konner M, Eaton SB. Paleolithic nutrition: twenty-five years later. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010;25(6):594-602.

49. Klonoff DC. The beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on type 2 diabetes and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2009;3(6):1229-32.

50. Frassetto LA, Schloetter M, Mietus-synder M, Morris RC, Sebastian A. Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63(8):947-55.

Arthritis | The Paleo Diet
It’s often times a diagnosis of cancer, diabetes, multiple sclerosis (MS), or another disease which proves to be the pivot point for individuals to make significant changes to their eating and exercise habits. Whether the change stems from obvious reasons, like losing weight because obesity has been the causal agent for developing type 2 diabetes, or per the advice of their physicians to cut out gluten and dairy following an autoimmune diagnosis, these steps are reactive versus proactive.

If we were to exercise daily and eat foods that set us up for health, rather than sickness in the first place, would we be able to determine our destiny? Clearly, we can take preventative measures to lower our risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes by leading an active lifestyle, veering away from the typical, highly refined Standard American Diet (SAD), and implementing a Paleo diet.

But what about minimizing our risk for autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with diet? Science suggests it’s looking quite promising.

Two studies presented at the American College of Rheumatology Annual Meeting in San Francisco show diet can significantly lower our chance for developing RA.1 RA is an autoimmune disease where the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the joints, creating inflammation that causes the tissue lining of the joints to thicken, resulting in swelling and pain in and around the joint.2

For those following a Paleo regime, inflammation is hardly a foreign term, and you’re familiar with the notion that avoiding certain foods can help offset symptoms dramatically.3 But how does this scientifically factor into RA treatment or minimize risk altogether?

In the first study, researchers found “typical Western diets high in red meat, processed meat, refined grains, fried food, high-fat dairy, and sweets can increase a person’s risk of developing RA in comparison to Prudent diets (a diet low in total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol and sodium which aid in lowering cholesterol and triglyceride blood levels and blood pressure)4 made mostly of fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, poultry and fish.”

The second study found that “following the Dietary Guidelines for Americans can also lower one’s chances of developing the disease because they provide authoritative advice about consuming fewer calories, making informed food choices, and being physically active to attain and maintain a healthy weight, reduce risk of chronic disease, and promote overall health.”

How was this measured? By using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index, created to measure how well participants followed the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, researchers observed associations of the subjects’ diets and their likelihood of developing RA. The researchers noted those who best adhered to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans had a 33% reduced risk of developing RA when compared to those who did not follow the guidelines as closely. And, just as in the first study, the researchers noted that body mass index may be a modest intermediate factor linking diet and risk of RA.

A few questions arise. If the sole means of data collection was to review and analyze what the participants reported to eat, how accurate can the findings really be? Were findings measured upon accountability and how can we be sure participants didn’t take the liberty of “cleaning up” their food log entries, energy levels, or sleep patterns?

A colleague of mine joked in reference to a new client who’d touted the benefits of a new fad diet, “any eating plan is going to ‘work’ in comparison to what one did before, because before, they didn’t have one!”

Researchers state “the single-nutrient approach may be inadequate for taking into account complicated interactions among nutrients, and high levels of inter-correlation makes it difficult to examine their separate effects.” So grouping all foods into  one lump category (recall the list: “diets high in red meat, processed meat, refined grains, fried food, high-fat dairy, and sweets”) doesn’t differentiate between high quality, grass fed meats, from the corn-fed beef. Nor does the “diet made mostly of fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, poultry and fish” distinguish the effects of antinutrients contained in legumes and grains,5 or the glycemic load of eating too much fruit.6

While I do agree that a healthy diet may prevent RA development, it’s a matter of deciphering what actually comprises a healthy diet. And from everything I’ve read and seen over the past decade, I certainly don’t need further convincing that a real Paleo diet can be the remedy to addressing a diagnosis of RA. By eating a diet rich in alkaline, anti-inflammatory foods, the body is armed with its best defenses and most equipped to stay diseases free for a healthy, long life!

References

1. “Diet May Determine Your Risk for Rheumatoid Arthritis.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2015

2. “What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis?” What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis? Arthritis Foundation, n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2015

3. Wahls, Terry L., and Eve Adamson. The Wahls Protocol: How I Beat Progressive MS Using Paleo Principles and Functional Medicine. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print

4. “What Is the Prudent Diet?” LIVESTRONG.COM. LIVESTRONG.COM, 30 June 2015. Web. 16 Nov. 2015

5. Stephenson, Nell. “Antinutrients, the Antithesis of True Paleo | The Paleo Diet.” The Paleo Diet. The Paleo Diet, 10 Mar. 2015. Web. 16 Nov. 2015

6. “Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load | The Paleo Diet | Dr. Loren Cordain.” The Paleo Diet. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2015

Sodium Levels | The Paleo Diet

For the majority of people, the problem with sodium is too much of it, not too little. National health organizations and the Paleo diet agree that high levels of dietary sodium should be avoided for healthy blood pressure levels and to reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease.1 However, diets too low in sodium are also dangerous, especially for athletes engaged in endurance sports.  Fortunately, it is possible for athletes to keep their sodium levels in check, without added processed foods, while still following the Paleo diet.

Understanding the Importance of Sodium in the Body

Although the Paleo diet is in inherently a low sodium lifestyle, dietary sodium, from naturally rich sodium foods and no common table salt, is necessary for everyday bodily functions.2 Muscles, including both the skeletal and cardiac types, need sodium to function properly. Twitches, cramps, spasms, and muscle weakness can occur when sodium levels are too low. The nervous system also uses electrolytes, such as ions of sodium, potassium and chloride, to transmit nerve impulses across cell membranes and to trigger muscle contractions.3 Sodium, in conjunction with potassium, is also necessary to maintain normal blood pressure, blood volume, and to balance bodily fluids.4 If that balance is disturbed, problems like heat-related illnesses and hyponatremia, low blood sodium (<130 mmol/L), may occur.5

Do Athletes Require More Dietary Sodium?

One major concern for athletes, especially those engaged in endurance activities, is that high sweat rates in athletes result in loss of both fluids and sodium.6 Low blood sodium can also occur in people who drink too much water, eat too little food, or take medications that deplete the body’s supply of water.7 Research indicates that the amount of sodium consumed in the days prior to exercise, might be more important in maintaining the proper levels during exercise, then in specific supplementation during the activity.8

Additionally, avoiding sodium rich beverages and foods during physical activity has been shown to not impact performance,9 ingesting sodium prior or during intense or prolonged physical activities is linked to an improved rate of absorption of water and carbohydrate in the small intestines.10 An athlete can encourage proper blood serum sodium levels by drinking for thirst and eating whole fruit, such as oranges, for a gradual fructose release.

Pre-and-Post Workout Meals

Pre-and-post workout meals can provide the necessary recovery nutrients rather than turning to processed supplements that are often sickeningly sweet, and contain many unnecessary additives and refined sugars. Surprisingly, they don’t contain exorbitant amounts of sodium. For example, a scoop of powdered electrolyte supplement contains 14 mg of sodium,11 compared to the 97mg available in a dash of table salt.12 An athlete concerned about maintaining adequate sodium levels during their exercise program can focus including naturally sodium-rich foods to their pre-workout meal, and focusing on the main principles of the Paleo diet. Our favorite sodium-rich and Paleo foods include:13

  • 1 large celery stalk (50 mg)
  • 1 beet (65 mg)
  • 4 oz. lamb chop (65 mg)
  • 4 oz. chicken breast (70 mg)
  • 4 oz. grass-fed ground beef (75 mg)
  • 1 cup of spinach (125 mg)
  • 1 cup of Swiss chard (300 mg)

By simply following a Paleo diet, focused on eating a wide variety of mineral rich vegetables, animal organs, and bone broth will supply the necessary nutrients to maintain adequate sodium levels, for both the weekend warrior and the elite endurance athlete under most training conditions. Traditional hunter-gathers participate in rigorous and demanding physical activities required by their hunting, gathering, and foraging lifestyles without needing to supplement their diets with table salt, or electrolyte supplements, to meet their sodium requirements. Dietary sodium is not quite the villain he has been made out to be. However, we don’t need to overcompensate with sodium-rich supplements when a regular Paleo diet offers enough of this essential nutrient to support most individuals, even those who are avid exercisers.

References

1. Mattes, R. D., and D. Donnelly. “Relative contributions of dietary sodium sources.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 10.4 (1991): 383-393.

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. “Usual sodium intakes compared with current dietary guidelines—United States, 2005-2008.” MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 60.41 (2011): 1413.

3. Brodal, Per. The central nervous system: structure and function. Oxford University Press, 2004.

4. Blaustein, M. P. “Sodium ions, calcium ions, blood pressure regulation, and hypertension: a reassessment and a hypothesis.” American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology 232.5 (1977): C165-C173.

5. Noakes, T. D., et al. “The incidence of hyponatremia during prolonged ultraendurance exercise.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 22.2 (1990): 165-170.

6. Godek, S. Fowkes, A. R. Bartolozzi, and J. J. Godek. “Sweat rate and fluid turnover in American football players compared with runners in a hot and humid environment.” British journal of sports medicine 39.4 (2005): 205-211.

7. Noakes, Timothy D. “The hyponatremia of exercise.” International journal of sport nutrition 2.3 (1992): 205-228.

8. Stofan, John R., et al. “Sweat and sodium losses in NCAA football players: a precursor to heat cramps?.” International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 15.6 (2005): 641.

9. Merson, Stuart J., Ronald J. Maughan, and Susan M. Shirreffs. “Rehydration with drinks differing in sodium concentration and recovery from moderate exercise-induced hypohydration in man.” European journal of applied physiology 103.5 (2008): 585-594.

10. Murray, Robert. “The effects of consuming carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages on gastric emptying and fluid absorption during and following exercise.” Sports Medicine 4.5 (1987): 322-351.

11. Available at: http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/beverages/9232/2. Accessed on October 7, 2015.

12. Avaialble at: http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/spices-and-herbs/216/2. Accessed on October 7, 2015.

13. http://nutritiondata.self.com/

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