Tag Archives: gluten free

Paleo Challenges

The season of celebration, gift-giving, and tradition is upon us. Along with all of the fun and festivities, the dieter is faced with the Paleo challenges of maintaining a healthy lifestyle while sorting through the endless sea of desserts, sweets, and holiday treats offered on a daily basis. Whether you have been eating Paleo for years, or just a beginner, this can be a tough time to keep healthy eating a priority. However, it is possible to get through the season, enjoy the special times, and stay committed to your Paleo lifestyle.

The key to success is a well thought out plan that works for you. Think about your family, friends, and work traditions and the foods that are sure to be a part of them. It can be helpful to make a mental or physical list of the food challenges you know will be facing you. We all have family members and friends who make the same dishes year after year. Who can resist Grandma’s homemade fudge, or Uncle Henry’s lasagna?

The key for surviving the holiday unhealthy food fest is to make sure that there will be plenty of nutritious Paleo foods right along with the unhealthy dishes. Be sure your kitchen is well stocked with fresh fruit, veggies, and lean meats and fish throughout the next few weeks. Maintain close to 100% Paleo for the times when you won’t be faced with unhealthy foods. Before heading out the door to the dietary challenges awaiting you at the family gathering, have a healthy Paleo snack to keep from feeling too hungry when you come face-to-face with the offending foods.

For some, making their friends and family aware of their Paleo lifestyle can be beneficial as most people who care about you will make an attempt to include some healthier dishes for the occasion. Often we are asked to bring a dish to contribute to the celebration. This is your opportunity to share your delicious Paleo recipes with others. Who knows, you may even inspire a loved one to adopt the Paleo way of living!

Realistically, there will be times when it is next to impossible to escape a not-so-Paleo meal served to you during the holidays. There may even be certain traditions you value and want to keep as you celebrate the season. Remember the 85-15 Rule for those who don’t want to maintain a strict Paleo Diet at all times. If you eat what your body was designed to eat 85% or more of the time, indulging in an occasional treat for the remaining 15% or less, you will still reap many of the health rewards of The Paleo Diet.

Pick and choose carefully and you will sail through the holidays with your vitality and well being firmly in place. Remember, it’s not what you do on the rare occasion, it’s what you do consistently that makes the difference in your overall health.

The Paleo Diet Team wishes you a very happy and healthy holiday season!

A Better Tasting Cookie and the Fall of the Roman Empire | The Paleo Diet

We nutrition geeks like to immerse ourselves in the science. We debate nutrient ratios, plant-animal caloric balance, sustainability, and the all-important question of whether the modern day cantaloupe even remotely resemble its ancient sisters. All pressing issues that no one standing around the water cooler at the local gym has ever discussed.

So I relish those moments when someone has the guts to finally stand up and state the “real” issue with the Paleo diet:

Our cookies suck!

Honestly, they do. In all our years of extolling the virtues of lean meats, fresh fruits, vegetables, and unprocessed foods, we’ve forgotten about the joys of mixing flour and sugar and butter in a big bowl and licking every last bit of that gooey goodness off our spatula. We offer you carrot, almond, and coconut alternatives that we slyly tell you taste just as good. But we’re lying.

And we’ve been called out…

A few mornings ago, I was setting about cooking my usual very-Paleo and, therefore, remarkably “un-fun” breakfast. Which always reminds me of one of my all-time favorite Simpson quotes. Bart asks Marge if he can have cake (I believe) for breakfast. Horrified, Marge proclaims “No way, mister! It’s just chocolate chip pancakes and syrup for you!” Get it? No one gets it. They’re the same thing…

So with my Paleo no-chocolate-chip-pancakes-to-be-seen breakfast, I sat down to Flipboard and began reading the morning’s nutrition news. And I came across the following article by a woman who nearly lost the meaning of life trying to cook a Paleo-friendly cookie:

I Went Paleo and Now I Hate Everything

Let me start by saying that this was one funny article.

As I read it, I of course found my mind wandering to the fall of the Roman Empire (which may also explain why people give me a very perplexed look anytime they try to have a conversation with me.) Or it could just be that I read the following line in the article:

“Remember when we cared about things? Remember when our great aunt sat us on the counter of her kitchen in Rome and we watched her fold tortellini by hand, which she made just for us?”

We’ll address that line, but first let’s get back to the fall of the Roman Empire.

In my high school history class, the big end of year project was a debate over what caused the Roman collapse. The winner of the debate found an old text by an 18th century historian named Edward Gibbons called The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.1

The gist of the book – Rome fell due to a loss of “civic virtue.”

Our winning debater talked about how the rise of the Empire was characterized by an industrial character. Roman citizens sacrificed immediate gratification for the greater good. Then he talked about the decline with a very poignant example:

In the later days, Romans would have all day feast where they would gorge themselves and then go “expel” their food so they could keep eating. Roman homes even had a room called a “vomitorium” designed solely for that purpose. Which is actually an urban myth, but hey, it was a high school history debate. You get away with what you can get away with.

He concluded with a remark that may have had some broader wisdom – great empires are marked by self-sacrifice for a higher purpose while a shift to instant gratification may spell their doom.

So let’s get back to the cookie.

Our Paleo-cookie-hater asked “remember when we cared about things?” A comment that then led to images of her great aunt making tortellini and her childhood self-eating “carbs with abandon.”

And I have to ask back, is that really what we cared about when we “cared about things?”

I never met my great aunt, but I’ve had many talks with my grandmother. She told me about how her father used to work 13 hours each day putting his needs aside to provide for his family and how during the Great Depression, her Christmas present was an apple. There may also have been a comment about walking uphill barefoot in two feet of snow to school, but hey, she’s 97. She can say these things.

It does seem that what she cared about had a lot to do with sacrifice and not the instant gratification of eating carbs with abandon.

Perhaps that’s the problem. In an age where Doritos, high fructose corn syrup, and fast food mark the decline and fall of the “healthy diet,” my high school debate friend could make a very poignant argument about the danger in making the instant gratification of a better tasting cookie the benchmark of a great diet.

So yes, our cookies don’t taste as good.

Some of us eat those Paleo carrot and almond “mushy chunks” because we do actually remember when we truly cared about something: a little short term sacrifice for a greater purpose – health, longevity, and a more productive life.

I was reminded of that fact a few weeks ago when I visited my grandmother in her assisted retirement home. She took me to their dining hall for dinner. Since you never say “no” to your grandmother, I smiled and ate mashed potatoes and cake with ice cream.

I won’t lie. After years of eating the Paleo diet those tasty foods that give life meaning weren’t all that satisfying anymore. Not compared to a slow-cooked salmon steak or Brussels sprouts with turkey bacon… yes, I said Brussels sprouts.

More importantly, as I looked around the retirement home I noticed people who were closer to my age than I wanted to admit.

But what I thought about was all of the people I wasn’t seeing. The still-not-yet-old 50- and 60-somethings in the hospital unable to care for themselves because of decades of enjoying the instant gratification of great tasting food, cigarettes, and watching television over a walk in the park.

I’ve been to those hospitals and I can tell you one thing for sure – the cookies suck.

 

REFERENCES

[1] Gibbon, E., et al., The history of the decline and fall of the Roman empire. A new edition. ed. 1783, London: Printed for W. Strahan and T. Cadell …

The Wheat Series Part 1: Wheat and the Immune System | The Paleo Diet

With a rapidly growing body of nutrition science covering everything from dietary proteins, to microflora composition, to caloric expenditure and cell bioenergetics, it’s surprising that still one of the hardest arguments to counter remains “I’ve always eaten it and I’m fine.” It’s a point my 97 year old grandmother likes to make every time she asks me about my research.

Let me tell you, arguing with a 97 year old about health is not easy.

The epidemiological version of the “I’m fine” argument is an assertion we hear a lot: while evidence exists that people with celiac disease cannot eat wheat, there is no proof that consuming a gluten-free diet will benefit the rest of the population.1, 2

Celiac sufferers can’t eat wheat. We know that. But it certainly appears that most people can have their bagel, get on with their days, and be just fine. Even live to see a century.

The “I’m fine” argument certainly appears to hold up on the surface. The underlying danger, however, is that the term “fine” is so remarkably subjective.

Take the case of tennis player Novak Djokovic. He went gluten-free in 2011 and then proceeded to have the most successful season in tennis history reaching number one in the process. He was certainly fine when he was eating wheat. He was just better without it.

So let’s take the subjectivity out of fine. Since we define a Paleo Diet as eating what we were designed to eat, perhaps a Paleo way of defining “fine” is functioning the way we were designed to function.

Looked at this way, there is in fact a great deal of research showing the various ways in which wheat causes our bodies to function abnormally. A select unfortunate few, such as celiacs and diabetics, may take the brunt of it, but none of us function normally eating wheat. None of us are fine.

This article is the first part in our wheat series summarizing current research on wheat and the immune system. The next few pieces will detail how wheat causes our bodies to stop functioning the way they were designed to function and can, ultimately, lead to disease. But to understand the damage, let’s start by examining what our digestive immune system looks like when it’s functioning just fine.

The Fine-Functioning Gut

Our digestive immune system is one of the most complex and robust systems in our bodies. Some 50×109 immune cells reside in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) which makes up the bulk of our immune cells.3

But why are there so many immune cells in the gut? Because, as the image below shows, the gut is an area of constant stress. The digestive tract is continually bombarded by bacteria, food particles, and pathogens.4,5

The Wheat Series Part 1: I’ve Always Eaten It and I’m Fine… Right? | The Paleo Diet

MacDonald, T.T. and G. Monteleone, Immunity, inflammation, and allergy in the gut. Science, 2005. 307(5717): p. 1920-1925.

This image is actually a highly simplified version of what goes on in the GALT. The reality is a complex mix of T Cells, monocytes, cytokines, chemokines, interleukins, adhesion molecules, and intricate processes that would have you running for a book on brain surgery to give yourself some light reading.

Don’t worry, we’re not going to cover all that.

We’re just going to focus on a few key concepts that will hopefully prove to be fascinating. But to do that we need to introduce just a few of the important players in the gut:

First is a row of tightly packed cells that keep the contents of the digestive tract from getting into the body. It is our first line of defense and normally very effective at keeping things out.6,7Leaky gut” is just a term we use for when this barrier breaks down.

Next in our line of defense are antigen presenting cells (APCs.) They are the macrophages, dendritic, and plasma cells in the image above. These cells “sample” all the food particles, bacteria, and pathogens in the gut and present them to the immune system.

The final players you need to know for this article are T Cells. They are the generals of the immune system. Antigens are presented to the T Cells and then they decide how to respond.

It’s All About Bacteria

Generally when we think about what our immune system deals with, we think about viruses and pathogens and all those nasty things on airplanes and in our kid’s kindergarten classes.

But the truth is, dealing with a pathogen is a rare thing for our digestive immune system. Most of its energy is spent managing our microflora – those beneficial bacteria we pop probiotics and eat yoghurt to encourage. We need them for our health. We just also need them to stay in our gut because they aren’t so beneficial inside our bodies.8,9,10,11

If you’re wondering how big a role these bacteria play, remember there are more cells in our microflora than cells in our own bodies.

They are so important in fact that several researchers proposed that our digestive immune system evolved not because of pathogens but to allow us to live in harmony with our microflora.5,9,11,12

This is a critical distinction!

If a pathogen or even the normally healthy bacteria in our gut gets into our blood, our bodies mount an immediate and strong inflammatory response.13,14 This inflammation is what causes the aches, fever, and chill we associated with being sick.

The response to a bacterial infection in circulation, though damaging, is necessary and keeps us alive. Fortunately, bacteria rarely gets into our blood.

In the gut, on the other hand, the immune system is exposed to bacteria thousands of times each day. An inflammatory response every time would be deadly.5, 15 There’s even a name for this out of control inflammation – sepsis.16

As a result, the digestive immune system takes a very different tact with our beneficial bacteria. It becomes anergic – meaning it actually blocks inflammation.17,18 Special immune cells in the gut called T regulatory (Treg) cells and a unique type of APC cell actively shut down the inflammatory response and then quietly take out the invading bacteria one-by-one.3,15

The Wheat Series Part 1: I’ve Always Eaten It and I’m Fine… Right? | The Paleo Diet

Zeng, H. and H. Chi, Metabolic control of regulatory T cell development and function. Trends in Immunology. 36(1): p. 3-12.

We All Get Inflamed Sometimes

As effective as this system is, bacteria still periodically get the upper hand and an inflammatory response in the gut becomes a necessary evil.

Several things happen. First, gut APCs lose their anergy.20, 21  Second, naturally inflammatory immune cells from the blood are recruited to the gut.5,22 Finally, the Treg cells that are so effective at keeping inflammation down give way to a unique T cell called Th17 cells.

Th17 cells are powerful immune cells believed to have a single purpose – control bacterial infections.8,11,23 They are highly effective at killing bacteria, but they can also be very damaging to our own bodies. It’s the price we pay to manage our microflora, but not one we want to pay often.9,10

Ultimately, the gut remains fine as long as the inflammation ramps up quickly, kills the infection, and then backs down.

The following diagram shows this shift in Treg/Th17 balance during infection:

The Wheat Series Part 1: I’ve Always Eaten It and I’m Fine… Right? | The Paleo Diet

Arrieta, M.-C. and B.B. Finlay, The commensal microbiota drives immune homeostasis. Frontiers in Immunology, 2012. 3

When It Stops Being Fine

Problems arise when the bacterial infestation becomes overwhelming or when the inflammation simply doesn’t go away.5,8

As the inflammation continues, the imbalance between anti-inflammatory Treg cells and inflammatory Th17 cells builds on itself until finally the Tregs can’t control the Th17 cells anymore.24,25,26,27

The Wheat Series Part 1: I’ve Always Eaten It and I’m Fine… Right? | The Paleo Diet

Ohnmacht, C., et al., Intestinal microbiota, evolution of the immune system and the bad reputation of pro-inflammatory immunity. Cell Microbiol, 2011. 13(5): p. 653-9.

No longer protective, Th17 cells can then enter other parts of the bodies and contribute to a variety of chronic diseases.28,29 such as asthma,30 heart disease,31, 32 and most autoimmune conditions28,33 including celiac disease,34,35 type I diabetes,36,37 Crohn’s disease,38,39 rheumatoid arthritis,29,40 and multiple sclerosis.41

The Three Pathways to a Not Fine Gut

This highly pathogenic Th17 imbalance is a result of an abnormally functioning digestive immune system. Three things are known to cause it:

  1. Increased intestinal permeability (leaky gut)
  2. Chronic or two high a bacterial load
  3. Food particles that can hurt immune function

So now that you’ve plowed through all of that only-interesting-to-people-like-me immune function information, here’s the really fascinating point:

Wheat is the only food we’re aware of that causes all three.

In the remaining articles in this series, I will share with you the surprisingly large number of ways in which wheat breaks down the normal intestinal immune system and leads to damaging Th17 development.42, 43

More importantly, I will show you that it happens in everyone. In other words, a normally healthy gut exposed to wheat isn’t fine in anyone. Stay tuned!

Read The Wheat Series Part 2: Opening the Barrier to Poor Gut Health HERE

Trevor Connor

Trevor Connor | The Paleo DietTrevor Connor is Dr. Cordain’s last mentored graduate student and will complete his M.S. in HES and Nutrition from the Colorado State University this year and later enter the Ph.D. program. Connor was the Principle Investigator in a large case study, approximately 100 subjects, in which he and Dr. Cordain examined autoimmune patients following The Paleo Diet or Paleo-like diets.

 

REFERENCES

[1]Ferch, C.C. and W.D. Chey, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Gluten Sensitivity Without Celiac Disease: Separating the Wheat From the Chaff. Gastroenterology, 2012. 142(3): p. 664-666.

[2]Gaesser, G.A. and S.S. Angadi, Gluten-Free Diet: Imprudent Dietary Advice for the General Population? Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2012. 112(9): p. 1330-1333.

[3]du Pre, M.F. and J.N. Samsom, Adaptive T-cell responses regulating oral tolerance to protein antigen. Allergy, 2011. 66(4): p. 478-90.
[4]MacDonald, T.T. and G. Monteleone, Immunity, inflammation, and allergy in the gut. Science, 2005. 307(5717): p. 1920-1925.

[5]Smith, P.D., et al., Intestinal macrophages and response to microbial encroachment. Mucosal Immunol, 2011. 4(1): p. 31-42.

[6]Visser, J., et al., Tight junctions, intestinal permeability, and autoimmunity: celiac disease and type 1 diabetes paradigms. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2009. 1165: p. 195-205.

[7]Yu, Q.H. and Q. Yang, Diversity of tight junctions (TJs) between gastrointestinal epithelial cells and their function in maintaining the mucosal barrier. Cell Biol Int, 2009. 33(1): p. 78-82.

[8]Ohnmacht, C., et al., Intestinal microbiota, evolution of the immune system and the bad reputation of pro-inflammatory immunity. Cell Microbiol, 2011. 13(5): p. 653-9.

[9]McFall-Ngai, M., Adaptive immunity: care for the community. Nature, 2007. 445(7124): p. 153.

[10]Ivanov, II, et al., Induction of intestinal Th17 cells by segmented filamentous bacteria. Cell, 2009. 139(3): p. 485-98.

[11]Cao, A.T., et al., Th17 cells upregulate polymeric Ig receptor and intestinal IgA and contribute to intestinal homeostasis. J Immunol, 2012. 189(9): p. 4666-73.

[12]Arrieta, M.-C. and B.B. Finlay, The commensal microbiota drives immune homeostasis. Frontiers in Immunology, 2012. 3.

[13]Koj, A., Initiation of acute phase response and synthesis of cytokines. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1996. 1317(2): p. 84-94.

[14]Ohl, M.E. and S.I. Miller, Salmonella: a model for bacterial pathogenesis. Annu Rev Med, 2001. 52: p. 259-74.

[15]Smythies, L.E., et al., Human intestinal macrophages display profound inflammatory anergy despite avid phagocytic and bacteriocidal activity. J Clin Invest, 2005. 115(1): p. 66-75.

[16]Bone, R.C., et al., DEfinitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. the accp/sccm consensus conference committee. american college of chest physicians/society of critical care medicine. Chest, 1992. 101(6): p. 1644-1655.

[17]Kamada, N., et al., Unique CD14 intestinal macrophages contribute to the pathogenesis of Crohn disease via IL-23/IFN-gamma axis. J Clin Invest, 2008. 118(6): p. 2269-80.

[18]Nagler-Anderson, C., Tolerance and immunity in the intestinal immune system. Critical Reviews in Immunology, 2000. 20(2): p. 103-120.

[19]Zeng, H. and H. Chi, Metabolic control of regulatory T cell development and function. Trends in Immunology. 36(1): p. 3-12.

[20]Williamson, E., G.M. Westrich, and J.L. Viney, Modulating dendritic cells to optimize mucosal immunization protocols. J Immunol, 1999. 163(7): p. 3668-75.

[21]Burcelin, R., L. Garidou, and C. Pomie, Immuno-microbiota cross and talk: the new paradigm of metabolic diseases. Semin Immunol, 2012. 24(1): p. 67-74.

[22]Yamazaki, K., J.A. Murray, and H. Kita, Innate immunomodulatory effects of cereal grains through induction of IL-10. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2008. 121(1): p. 172-178 e3.

[23]Reynolds, J.M., et al., Cutting edge: regulation of intestinal inflammation and barrier function by IL-17C. J Immunol, 2012. 189(9): p. 4226-30.

[24]Zhou, X., et al., Instability of the transcription factor Foxp3 leads to the generation of pathogenic memory T cells in vivo. Nat Immunol, 2009. 10(9): p. 1000-7.

[25]Scalapino, K.J. and D.I. Daikh, CTLA-4: a key regulatory point in the control of autoimmune disease. Immunol Rev, 2008. 223: p. 143-55.

[26]Ejsing-Duun, M., et al., Dietary gluten reduces the number of intestinal regulatory T cells in mice. Scand J Immunol, 2008. 67(6): p. 553-9.

[27]Lochner, M., et al., In vivo equilibrium of proinflammatory IL-17+ and regulatory IL-10+ Foxp3+ RORgamma t+ T cells. J Exp Med, 2008. 205(6): p. 1381-93.

[28]Kamada, N., et al., Role of the gut microbiota in immunity and inflammatory disease. Nat Rev Immunol, 2013. 13(5): p. 321-35.

[29]Tesmer, L.A., et al., Th17 cells in human disease. Immunological Reviews, 2008. 223: p. 87-113.

[30]Cosmi, L., et al., Th17 cells: new players in asthma pathogenesis. Allergy, 2011. 66(8): p. 989-98.

[31]Taleb, S., A. Tedgui, and Z. Mallat, IL-17 and Th17 cells in atherosclerosis: subtle and contextual roles. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2015. 35(2): p. 258-64.

[32]van Bruggen, N. and W. Ouyang, Th17 cells at the crossroads of autoimmunity, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Immunity, 2014. 40(1): p. 10-2.

[33]Singh, R.P., et al., Th17 cells in inflammation and autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev, 2014. 13(12): p. 1174-81.

[34]Monteleone, I., et al., Characterization of IL-17A-producing cells in celiac disease mucosa. J Immunol, 2010. 184(4): p. 2211-8.

[35]Castellanos-Rubio, A., et al., TH17 (and TH1) signatures of intestinal biopsies of CD patients in response to gliadin. Autoimmunity, 2009. 42(1): p. 69-73.

[36]Kumar, P. and G. Subramaniyam, Molecular underpinnings of Th17 immune-regulation and their implications in autoimmune diabetes. Cytokine, 2015. 71(2): p. 366-76.

[37]Shao, S., et al., Th17 cells in type 1 diabetes. Cell Immunol, 2012. 280(1): p. 16-21.

[38]Elson, C.O., et al., Monoclonal anti-interleukin 23 reverses active colitis in a T cell-mediated model in mice. Gastroenterology, 2007. 132(7): p. 2359-70.

[39]Brand, S., Crohn’s disease: Th1, Th17 or both? The change of a paradigm: new immunological and genetic insights implicate Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease. Gut, 2009. 58(8): p. 1152-67.

[40]Hirota, K., et al., Preferential recruitment of CCR6-expressing Th17 cells to inflamed joints via CCL20 in rheumatoid arthritis and its animal model. J Exp Med, 2007. 204(12): p. 2803-12.

[41]Du, C., et al., MicroRNA miR-326 regulates TH-17 differentiation and is associated with the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Nat Immunol, 2009. 10(12): p. 1252-9.

[42]Antvorskov, J.C., et al., Dietary gluten alters the balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in T cells of BALB/c mice. Immunology, 2013. 138(1): p. 23-33.

[43]Antvorskov, J.C., et al., Impact of dietary gluten on regulatory T cells and Th17 cells in BALB/c mice. PLoS One, 2012. 7(3): p. e33315.

Wheat: Opening the Barrier to Poor Gut Health | The Paleo Diet

Did you miss The Wheat Series Part 1: Wheat and the Immune System? Read it HERE.

It was a comment I’ve heard too many times. I was watching tennis with a friend who knew me as a cyclist, not as someone who researches nutrition. The commentators were discussing world No. 1 ranked tennis player Novak Djokovic’s newfound success since going on a gluten-free diet. My friend got noticeably irritated and finally blurted “I’m tired of this gluten-free fad! There’s not a scrap of evidence it makes a difference unless you have celiac disease.” As much as I wanted to, I chose not to respond, but thought to myself, “The bottom drawer of my research cabinet is awfully heavy for not having a scrap of anything in it.

This viewpoint that the health benefits of a gluten-free diet are more fad than science is a pervasive one. But what has led so many, including doctors and scientists, to say the research doesn’t exist?

Certainly the science is extensive for celiac disease where the role of gluten is indisputable. Gliadin, a protein in gluten, binds to a molecule in our bodies called tissue transglutaminase. In celiac patients it’s this new, combined molecule that sets off the inappropriate immune response.1, 2, 3

Without gluten, celiac disease couldn’t exist.

Recently other gluten-related disorders like gluten allergies and gluten ataxia have been identified.4, 5  But admittedly, these conditions affect only about 2% – 10% of the population. Outside of these diseases my friend has a point; research showing gluten having a direct pathogenic role, as it does in celiac disease, isn’t there.

But perhaps this is where the disconnect exists.

While a great deal of published research is showing that wheat and gluten can promote a large range of chronic conditions4, 6, 7, 8, gluten’s role is not so direct. Instead, gluten may breakdown the body’s natural defenses, setting up an inflammatory environment. This environment is highly conducive to a variety of chronic diseases in those of us who are unfortunate enough to have the wrong genetics.9, 10 Gluten sets the stage.

Looking at gluten this way, the bottom drawer of my cabinet suddenly gets a lot heavier. I hope to share a few posts on the ways in which wheat can set the stage for unwanted inflammation and disease. Let’s start with a surprising function that came out of celiac research.

LOOSENING OUR BORDERS

One of the most important roles of our gut, beside processing nutrients and hosting a rich microflora, is to provide a barrier blocking the entry of unwanted particles. Fortunately tight junctions (TJ) between the epithelial cells of our intestine carefully regulate entry of all but a few small molecules and essential nutrients.

Over the last 20 years, Dr. Alessio Fasano at the University of Maryland has researched breakdowns in this barrier, ultimately identifying a molecule produced in our guts called zonulin.14 Zonulin has the unique ability to dissolve the occludins, claudins, zonular occluden, and ZO-1 proteins that make up the structural cytoskeletons of our tight junctions.6, 15, 16, 17, 18

Put simply, zonulin can breakdown our barrier and increase intestinal permeability. An effect that’s often referred to around the web as “leaky gut.” It is rapid, reproducible, and fortunately, reversible.16

To date, two powerful triggers for zonulin have been identified.

The first trigger is exposure to bacteria in the intestine. Interestingly, infection by both pathogenic and “healthy” bacteria can have a triggering effect. However, it’s amplified with the “bad guys” as we can see from the chart below on the left.19

Wheat: Opening the Barrier to Poor Gut Health | The Paleo Diet
Wheat: Opening the Barrier to Poor Gut Health | The Paleo Diet
It is believed that zonulin evolved to protect us against bacterial colonization in the gut.6, 17, 19 When there’s an overload of bacteria in an otherwise healthy digestive tract, zonulin opens up the tight junctions allowing fluid to rush into the gut and flush out microorganisms.

The second powerful activator of the zonulin system is gliadin.

Gliadin fragments bind to the CXCR3 receptor on the epithelial cells of the gut. Then through a MyD88 signaling process, these epithelial cells release zonulin and cause an opening of tight junctions.6, 15, 17, 20, 21

It’s a complex process, but all you need to know is that gliadin can do this from inside the gut. It doesn’t have to get into our systems. More importantly, gluten is inappropriately high jacking a powerful defense mechanism designed to handle bacterial contamination.17

In the above right figure, we can see from Dr. Fasano’s research how gliadin’s ability to stimulate zonulin can be as powerful as bacterial triggers.6

Finally, while gliadin’s effect is much stronger in individuals with celiac disease, gliadin does not discriminate, and it happens in all peoples guts.6, 17

PERMEABLE CONSEQUENCES

With a healthy gut barrier, large molecules are degraded before entering the body and are well tolerated by the immune system.12 Intestinal permeability caused by gluten and bacteria allows these large molecules to get into circulation and act as antigens (activators) for the immune system.15, 17, 22

This becomes a real concern considering gluten is normally consumed with a meal. Its rapid effect on gut permeability happens at the same time that the gut is being hit by a large number of foreign antigens.

 

Wheat: Opening the Barrier to Poor Gut Health | The Paleo Diet

Dr. Fasano and his group proposed that once these antigens gain entry, they can be misinterpreted by the immune system in genetically susceptible individuals. The result is an inappropriate immune response that ultimately leads to chronic illness.6, 12, 15, 23, 24, 25In a healthy gut, these antigens would never gain access to the immune system.

The image above provides a nice representation of how gluten can open tight junctions and lead to diseases such as celiac disease and type 1 diabetes.6

LOSING THE BARRIER TO DISEASE

So, what does this all amount to? Intestinal permeability caused by either bacterial overgrowth or gluten (both of which are heavily influenced by diet) may be a key early step to set the body up for many chronic illness.

But is there any research? Fortunately, this is where I have to start using more drawers in my research cabinet.

Higher zonulin levels and intestinal permeability have been associated with and often precede many autoimmune conditions including type 1 diabetes,16, 30, 3132, 33celiac disease,17, 28, 34 multiple sclerosis,35, 36 rheumatoid arthritis,37, 38ankylosing spondylitis,37, 39 and Crohn’s disease.40, 41Eating wheat has been directly linked to diabetes.31, 42, 43, 44

A popular theory of autoimmune disease – called the molecular mimicry theory – proposed that autoimmune disease is initiated by viruses that mimic our bodies.26, 27 Dr. Fasano and his group suggested instead that dietary antigens passing through a leaky gut may be the environmental trigger. To test their theory, they were able to use a zonulin inhibitor to reduce the severity of celiac disease symptoms in humans 28 and the incidence of type 1 diabetes in mice.29

Intestinal permeability isn’t just associated with autoimmune conditions. Permeability may affect asthmatics by increasing their exposure to allergens.45, 46 Elevated zonulin levels have been found in irritable bowel disease 47, 48 and cancer.4950Even schizophrenia has recently been linked to gluten consumption and zonulin levels.51, 52

But a final question remains.

In a world where most people reach for a bagel and toast as soon as they get out of bed, intestinal permeability may just be a part of western life that gets an unfair rap by association. In other words, is it too easy to just link permeability with chronic disease? Does it really play a role?

In his 2011 review of zonulin and disease, Dr. Fasano addressed this question pointing out a number of studies where symptoms and incidence rates were reduced when gluten was removed from the diet or when zonulin’s effects were blocked.6

Wheat, a no-no for any good Paleo dieter, was clearly opening doors.

Read The Wheat Series Part 3: Setting Off the Bacterial Alarm Bells – With or Without the Bacteria HERE

REFERENCES

[1]Dieterich, W., et al., Identification of tissue transglutaminase as the autoantigen of celiac disease. Nature Medicine, 1997. 3(7): p. 797-801.

[2]Molberg, O., et al., Tissue transglutaminase selectively modifies gliadin peptides that are recognized by gut-derived T cells in celiac disease. Nature Medicine, 1998. 4(6): p. 713-717.

[3]Plenge, R.M., Unlocking the pathogenesis of celiac disease. Nat Genet, 2010. 42(4): p. 281-2.

[4]Sapone, A., et al., Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classification. BMC Med, 2012. 10: p. 13.

[5]Hadjivassiliou, M., et al., Gluten ataxia in perspective: epidemiology, genetic susceptibility and clinical characteristics. Brain, 2003. 126(Pt 3): p. 685-91.

[6]Fasano, A., Zonulin and its regulation of intestinal barrier function: the biological door to inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer. Physiol Rev, 2011. 91(1): p. 151-75.

[7]Biesiekierski, J.R., et al., Gluten causes gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects without celiac disease: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol, 2011. 106(3): p. 508-14; quiz 515.

[8]Bernardo, D., et al., Is gliadin really safe for non-coeliac individuals? Production of interleukin 15 in biopsy culture from non-coeliac individuals challenged with gliadin peptides. Gut, 2007. 56(6): p. 889-890.

[9]Palova-Jelinkova, L., et al., Gliadin fragments induce phenotypic and functional maturation of human dendritic cells. J Immunol, 2005. 175(10): p. 7038-45.

[10]De Palma, G., et al., Effects of a gluten-free diet on gut microbiota and immune function in healthy adult human subjects. Br J Nutr, 2009. 102(8): p. 1154-60.

[11]Yu, Q.H. and Q. Yang, Diversity of tight junctions (TJs) between gastrointestinal epithelial cells and their function in maintaining the mucosal barrier. Cell Biol Int, 2009. 33(1): p. 78-82.

[12]Fasano, A., Physiological, Pathological, and Therapeutic Implications of Zonulin-Mediated Intestinal Barrier Modulation Living Life on the Edge of the Wall. American Journal of Pathology, 2008. 173(5): p. 1243-1252.

[13]Shen, L. and J.R. Turner, Role of epithelial cells in initiation and propagation of intestinal inflammation. Eliminating the static: tight junction dynamics exposed. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 2006. 290(4): p. G577-82.

[14]Di Pierro, M., et al., Zonula occludens toxin structure-function analysis. Identification of the fragment biologically active on tight junctions and of the zonulin receptor binding domain. J Biol Chem, 2001. 276(22): p. 19160-5.

[15]Sander, G.R., et al., Rapid disruption of intestinal barrier function by gliadin involves altered expression of apical junctional proteins. FEBS Lett, 2005. 579(21): p. 4851-5.

[16]Visser, J., et al., Tight junctions, intestinal permeability, and autoimmunity: celiac disease and type 1 diabetes paradigms. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2009. 1165: p. 195-205.

[17]Drago, S., et al., Gliadin, zonulin and gut permeability: Effects on celiac and non-celiac intestinal mucosa and intestinal cell lines. Scand J Gastroenterol, 2006. 41(4): p. 408-19.

[18]Fasano, A., et al., Zonula occludens toxin modulates tight junctions through protein kinase C-dependent actin reorganization, in vitro. J Clin Invest, 1995. 96(2): p. 710-20.

[19]El Asmar, R., et al., Host-dependent zonulin secretion causes the impairment of the small intestine barrier function after bacterial exposure. Gastroenterology, 2002. 123(5): p. 1607-15.

[20]Lammers, K.M., et al., Gliadin induces an increase in intestinal permeability and zonulin release by binding to the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Gastroenterology, 2008. 135(1): p. 194-204 e3.

[21]Clemente, M.G., et al., Early effects of gliadin on enterocyte intracellular signalling involved in intestinal barrier function. Gut, 2003. 52(2): p. 218-23.

[22]Fasano, A., Intestinal zonulin: open sesame! Gut, 2001. 49(2): p. 159-62.

[23]Cereijido, M., et al., New diseases derived or associated with the tight junction. Arch Med Res, 2007. 38(5): p. 465-78.

[23]Fasano, A., Surprises from celiac disease. Sci Am, 2009. 301(2): p. 54-61.

[24]Mowat, A.M., Anatomical basis of tolerance and immunity to intestinal antigens. Nat Rev Immunol, 2003. 3(4): p. 331-41.

[25]Oldstone, M.B.A., MOLECULAR MIMICRY AND AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE. Cell, 1987. 50(6): p. 819-820.

[26]Wucherpfennig, K.W. and J.L. Strominger, MOLECULAR MIMICRY IN T-CELL-MEDIATED AUTOIMMUNITY – VIRAL PEPTIDES ACTIVATE HUMAN T-CELL CLONES SPECIFIC FOR MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN. Cell, 1995. 80(5): p. 695-705.

[27]Paterson, B.M., et al., The safety, tolerance, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of single doses of AT-1001 in coeliac disease subjects: a proof of concept study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 2007. 26(5): p. 757-66.

[28]Watts, T., et al., Role of the intestinal tight junction modulator zonulin in the pathogenesis of type I diabetes in BB diabetic-prone rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2005. 102(8): p. 2916-21.

[29]Bosi, E., et al., Increased intestinal permeability precedes clinical onset of type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia, 2006. 49(12): p. 2824-7.

[30]Mojibian, M., et al., Diabetes-specific HLA-DR-restricted proinflammatory T-cell response to wheat polypeptides in tissue transglutaminase antibody-negative patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes, 2009. 58(8): p. 1789-96.

[31]Sapone, A., et al., Zonulin upregulation is associated with increased gut permeability in subjects with type 1 diabetes and their relatives. Diabetes, 2006. 55(5): p. 1443-1449.

[32]De Magistris, L., et al., Altered mannitol absorption in diabetic children. Ital J Gastroenterol, 1996. 28(6): p. 367.

[33]De Palma, G., et al., Intestinal dysbiosis and reduced immunoglobulin-coated bacteria associated with coeliac disease in children. BMC Microbiol, 2010. 10: p. 63.

[34]Westall, F.C., Abnormal hormonal control of gut hydrolytic enzymes causes autoimmune attack on the CNS by production of immune-mimic and adjuvant molecules: A comprehensive explanation for the induction of multiple sclerosis. Med Hypotheses, 2007. 68(2): p. 364-9.

[35]Yacyshyn, B., et al., Multiple sclerosis patients have peripheral blood CD45RO+ B cells and increased intestinal permeability. Dig Dis Sci, 1996. 41(12): p. 2493-8.

[36]Smith, M.D., R.A. Gibson, and P.M. Brooks, Abnormal bowel permeability in ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol, 1985. 12(2): p. 299-305.

[37]Edwards, C.J., Commensal gut bacteria and the etiopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol, 2008. 35(8): p. 1477-14797.

[38]Liu, J., et al., Identification of disease-associated proteins by proteomic approach in ankylosing spondylitis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2007. 357(2): p. 531-6.

[39]D’Inca, R., et al., Increased intestinal permeability and NOD2 variants in familial and sporadic Crohn’s disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 2006. 23(10): p. 1455-61.

[40]Irvine, E.J. and J.K. Marshall, Increased intestinal permeability precedes the onset of Crohn’s disease in a subject with familial risk. Gastroenterology, 2000. 119(6): p. 1740-4.

[41]Maurano, F., et al., Small intestinal enteropathy in non-obese diabetic mice fed a diet containing wheat. Diabetologia, 2005. 48(5): p. 931-7.

[42]Ziegler, A.G., et al., Early infant feeding and risk of developing type 1 diabetes-associated autoantibodies. JAMA, 2003. 290(13): p. 1721-8.

[43]Funda, D.P., et al., Gluten-free but also gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet prevent diabetes in NOD mice; the gluten enigma in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-Metabolism Research and Reviews, 2008. 24(1): p. 59-63.

[44]Knutson, T.W., et al., Effects of luminal antigen on intestinal albumin and hyaluronan permeability and ion transport in atopic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 1996. 97(6): p. 1225-32.

[45]Hijazi, Z., et al., Intestinal permeability is increased in bronchial asthma. Arch Dis Child, 2004. 89(3): p. 227-9.

[46]Arrieta, M.C., et al., Reducing small intestinal permeability attenuates colitis in the IL10 gene-deficient mouse. Gut, 2009. 58(1): p. 41-8.

[47]Weber, C.R. and J.R. Turner, Inflammatory bowel disease: is it really just another break in the wall? Gut, 2007. 56(1): p. 6-8.

[48]Lai, C.H., et al., Proteomics-based identification of haptoglobin as a novel plasma biomarker in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Chim Acta, 2010. 411(13-14): p. 984-91.

[50]Dowling, P., et al., 2-D difference gel electrophoresis of the lung squamous cell carcinoma versus normal sera demonstrates consistent alterations in the levels of ten specific proteins. Electrophoresis, 2007. 28(23): p. 4302-10.

[51]Wan, C., et al., Abnormal changes of plasma acute phase proteins in schizophrenia and the relation between schizophrenia and haptoglobin (Hp) gene. Amino Acids, 2007. 32(1): p. 101-8.

[52]Kalaydjian, A.E., et al., The gluten connection: the association between schizophrenia and celiac disease. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 2006. 113(2): p. 82-90.

Millet | The Paleo Diet

Over the past 5-7 years, more and more people worldwide have become aware of the Paleo Diet, which really is not a diet at all, but rather a lifelong way of eating to reduce the risk of chronic disease and maximize health and wellbeing. One of the fundamental principles of The Paleo Diet is to eliminate or drastically reduce consumption of cereal grains, whether they are refined or whole. Currently, 8 cereal grains (wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, oats, rye, and millet) provide 56% of the food energy and 50% of the protein consumed on earth.3 However, from an evolutionary perspective, these foods were rarely or never consumed by our hunter gatherer ancestors.3

When I first made the suggestion that as a species we would be a lot healthier if we reduced or eliminated cereal consumption in 1999,3 I received, and still receive, criticism by some professionals in the nutritional community because they believe that the elimination of an entire food group (cereals) is nutritionally unsound and “will produce numerous dietary deficiencies.” This statement is not supported by any experimental evidence. In fact, the contrary is true. As I have previously pointed out, elimination of cereal grains actually increases the nutrient density of the 13 vitamins and minerals most lacking in the U.S. diet4, 5 – providing cereals are replaced by fresh fruits, vegetables, meats, poultry, fish, seafood and eggs.

Besides this fundamental lack of knowledge concerning the nutrient density of cereal grains, nearly all classically trained nutritionists have little or no appreciation for the antinutrients present in grains. As the name implies, antinutrients are dietary substances which interfere with our normal metabolism and physiology. Cereal grains are generally concentrated sources of numerous antinutrients and may produce undesirable health effects,3 particularly when consumed as daily staples.

In the U.S. “gluten free” foods have become incredibly popular in recent years as many people recognize that they simply feel better by eliminating the 3 gluten containing grains (wheat, rye and barley). Gluten conscious consumers frequently replace wheat, rye and barley with non-gluten containing grains (rice, corn, oats, sorghum and millet) in the mistaken belief that these 5 non-gluten grains are harmless. However, as I have previously pointed out, even the 5 non-gluten containing grains should be avoided for a variety of reasons.3 Specifically, I’ll detail below how millet adversely affects iodine metabolism and may cause goiter (swelling of the neck) when eaten regularly.

The Culprit: Millet

Unless you are a vegan, a vegetarian or are in search of gluten-free grains, most Americans and westerners have never tasted millet. Nevertheless, you don’t have to look very far to find this cereal grain (grass seed) at most health food stores. If you only dine upon millet dishes once in a blue moon, it will have zero repercussions upon your health, but be aware that millet is a nutrient poor, antinutrient laden food – the regular consumption of which may cause multiple dietary deficiencies and nutrient related diseases,3 including impairment of iodine metabolism and risk for goiter.

Millet is not a single plant species (as are most other cereal grains), but rather interpreted broadly may comprise about 500 species of grass seeds worldwide.13 Only a few species of millet are commonly cultivated as food crops. Worldwide, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is the most widely produced millet15 and is cultivated extensively in Africa and India. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana, proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), fonio millet (Digitaria exilis), and foxtail millet (Setaria italic) are also important crop species in developing countries.13, 15 Nevertheless millet is a minor cereal grain in terms of global economic importance. Worldwide production of millet is about 1% of either wheat or rice.13

Because millets require little water and are highly drought resistant, they grow well in arid and semi arid regions of the world such as in countries surrounding the Sahara desert in Africa and in dry areas in India and Asia. Further, millet is an attractive agricultural crop for farmers in these regions because under good conditions, it can yield two harvests per year13 and is resistant to pests and pathogens.

In the Sudan region (Darfur Province) of Africa, dietary surveys show that millet consumption in three communities (Kas, Tawaila and Nyala) was the primary source of food calories, respectively yielding 73.6%, 66.7%, and 37.1% of total daily energy.20 In this study, the occurrence of goiter was outrageously high – greater than almost anywhere else in the world. The incidence of goiter for girls in these three communities was 75%, 55%, and 13%, respectively; for boys it was 46%, 35%, and 10%, respectively. Similar high rates of goiter and thyroid disorders have been reported for school children in the Gujarat district of Western India where millet is a staple food.2

Millet Consumption, Iodine Deficiency and Goiter

Wherever and whenever millet becomes a staple food worldwide, the incidence of goiter increases and abnormalities of thyroid function and iodine metabolism occur2,7,16-20 Further, animal studies in rats, pet birds, and goats and tissue (in vitro) studies demonstrate unequivocally that this cereal plays a major role in causing goiter, thyroid abnormalities and impairment of iodine metabolism.1, 8, 10-12, 22

Iodine is an essential nutrient for humans, without which we most conspicuously develop goiter (an enlargement of the thyroid gland about the neck). Additionally, lack of iodine in the diet impairs cognitive development in growing infants and children, miscarriage in pregnant women and brain and nervous system dysfunction in adults.24, 25

Originally, it was thought that goiter occurred primarily from a deficiency of iodine in our food supply and water. Accordingly, in the U.S. and elsewhere most dietary salt (NaCl) has been fortified with iodine. An unappreciated aspect of iodine metabolism is that metabolic deficiencies of this nutrient can still occur even when dietary intake of iodine appears to be sufficient.7 Although virtually unknown to most nutritionists, elements found in millet represent powerful antinutrients that impair iodine metabolism and frequently cause goiter and symptoms of iodine deficiency.

Goitrogens in Millet

Goitrogens are dietary substances which impair thyroid and iodine metabolism and may ultimately cause the development of goiter. As I have previously alluded, a few scientists in the nutritional community early on appreciated that high millet diets promoted goiter. However, it was not completely understood how millet produced its goitrogenic effect. Subsequent discoveries and experiments over the past 35 years now show that compounds known as flavonoids in millets are responsible for causing iodine dysfunction and may in turn produce goiter when consumed as staples.6, 7, 21, 23

All millets are concentrated sources of compounds known as polyphenolics, some of which are referred to as flavonoids. Numerous flavonoids have been found in millets including apigenin, luteolin , kaempferol and vitexin; all of which severely impair thyroid function and iodine metabolism6, 10-12, 21, 23 and cause goiter in animal and tissue models.1, 8, 10-12, 22 Although it is not completely understood, flavonoids from millets appear to inhibit iodine uptake by most cells in the body, impair secretion of thyroid hormones, and reduce organification of Iodine by the enzyme thyroperoxidase.6, 7, 10, 23

Additional Antinutrients in Millets

Although a few scientific articles suggest that millets may possess positive health effects,26, 27 these papers and authors seem to be completely unaware of the numerous antinutrients found in millets and their potential for disrupting nutrition and health.

Let’s begin with the mistaken notion that millets are good sources of calcium.26, 27 Upon chemical analysis on paper, this statement may be true, but in the body (in vivo), nothing could be further from the truth. Calcium, along with iron and zinc that may be present in millets are actually poorly absorbed in our bodies because phytates, tannins and other compounds prevent their assimilation.28-32 Accordingly, high cereal grain diets whether millet derived or not, frequently result in multiple nutrient deficiencies including calcium, iron and zinc.3

In addition to their high phytate, flavonoid and polyphenolic contents, millets are also concentrated sources of other antinutrients including protease inhibitors (trypsin, chymotrypsin, alpha amylase and cysteine)33-35 and steroidal saponins.36, 37 Cereal grain protease inhibitors likely elicit adverse effects upon the pancreas when consumed as staple foods,3 and saponins are known to increase intestinal permeability and may contribute to chronic low level systemic inflammation.

Taken in its entirety, an overwhelming scientific literature demonstrates that millets are second rate foods that when consumed regularly may adversely affect iodine metabolism and elicit goiter. I’m not completely sure where the USDA dietitians derived their recommendations for whole grain consumption, but it certainly could not have come from their familiarity with the millet literature.

Cordially,

Loren Cordain, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus

 

References

1. Abel Gadir WS, Adam SE. Development of goitre and enterohepatonephropathy in Nubian Goats fed with pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides). Vet J. 1999 Mar;157(2):178-85.

2. Brahmbhatt S, Brahmbhatt RM, Boyages SC. Thyroid ultrasound is the best prevalence indicator for assessment of iodine deficiency disorders: a study in rural/tribal schoolchildren from Gujarat (Western India). Eur J Endocrinol. 2000 Jul;143(1):37-46.

3. Cordain L. (1999). Cereal grains: humanity’s double edged sword. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, 84: 19-73.

4. Cordain L. The nutritional characteristics of a contemporary diet based upon Paleolithic food groups. J Am Neutraceut Assoc 2002; 5:15-24.

5. Cordain L, Eaton SB, Sebastian A, Mann N, Lindeberg S, Watkins BA, O’Keefe JH, Brand-Miller J. Origins and evolution of the western diet: Health implications for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:341-54.

6. de Souza Dos Santos MC, Gonçalves CF, Vaisman M, Ferreira AC, de Carvalho DP. Impact of flavonoids on thyroid function. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Oct;49(10):2495-502

7. Elnour A, Hambraeus L, Eltom M, Dramaix M, Bourdoux P. Endemic goiter with iodine sufficiency: a possible role for the consumption of pearl millet in the etiology of endemic goiter. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71(1):59-66.

8. Elnour A, Liedén S, Bourdoux P, Eltom M, Khalid SA, Hambraeus L. Traditional fermentation increases goitrogenic activity in pearl millet. Ann Nutr Metab. 1998;42(6):341-9.

9. Elnour A, Liedén S, Bourdoux P, Eltom M, Khalid SA, Hambraeus L. The goitrogenic effect of two Sudanese pearl millet cultivars in rats. Nutr Res 1997; Mar (17): 533–546.

10. Gaitan E, Cooksey RC, Legan J, Lindsay RH. Antithyroid effects in vivo and in vitro of vitexin: a C-glucosylflavone in millet. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Apr;80(4):1144-7.

11. Gaitan E, Lindsay RH, Reichert RD, Ingbar SH, Cooksey RC, Legan J, Meydrech EF, Hill J, Kubota K. Antithyroid and goitrogenic effects of millet: role of C-glycosylflavones. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989 Apr;68(4):707-14.

12. Gaitan E, Lindsay RH, Cooksey RC, Hill J, Reichert RD, Ingbar SH. The thyroid effects of C-glycosylflavonoids in millet. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1988;280:349-63

13. Hunt HV, Badakshi F, Romanova O, Howe CJ, Jones MK, Heslop-Harrison JS. Reticulate evolution in Panicum (Poaceae): the origin of tetraploid broomcorn millet, P. miliaceum. J Exp Bot. 2014 Jul;65(12):3165-75.

14. Lu H, Zhang J, Liu KB, Wu N, Li Y, Zhou K, Ye M, Zhang T, Zhang H, Yang X, Shen L, Xu D, Li Q. Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 May 5;106(18):7367-72

15. McDonough CM, Rooney LW, Serna-Saldivar SO. (2000). “The Millets”. Food Science and Technology: Handbook of Cereal Science and Technology (CRC Press). 99 2nd ed: 177–210.

16. Medani AM1, Elnour AA, Saeed AM. Endemic goitre in the Sudan despite long-standing programmes for the control of iodine deficiency disorders. Bull World Health Organ. 2011 Feb 1;89(2):121-6.

17. Moreno-Reyes R1, Boelaert M, el Badawi S, Eltom M, Vanderpas JB. Endemic juvenile hypothyroidism in a severe endemic goitre area of Sudan. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1993 Jan;38(1):19-24.

18. [No authors listed] Millet–a possibly goitrogenic cereal. Nutr Rev. 1983 Apr;41(4):113-6.

19. Osman AK, Basu TK, Dickerson JW. A goitrogenic agent from millet (Pennisetum typhoides) in Darfur Province, Western Sudan. Ann Nutr Metab. 1983;27(1):14-8.

20. Osman AK, Fatah AA. Factors other than iodine deficiency contributing to the endemicity of goitre in Darfur Province (Sudan). J Hum Nutr. 1981 Aug;35(4):302-9.

21. Sartelet H, Serghat S, Lobstein A, Ingenbleek Y, Anton R, Petitfrère E, Aguie-Aguie G, Martiny L, Haye B. Flavonoids extracted from fonio millet (Digitaria exilis) reveal potent antithyroid properties. Nutrition. 1996 Feb;12(2):100-6.

22. Schoemaker NJ, Lumeij JT, Dorrestein GM, Beynen AC. Nutrition-related problems in pet birds]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 1999 Jan 15;124(2):39-43.

23. Schröder-van der Elst JP1, Smit JW, Romijn HA, van der Heide D. Dietary flavonoids and iodine metabolism. Biofactors. 2003;19(3-4):171-6.

24. Zimmermann MB.The role of iodine in human growth and development. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2011 Aug;22(6):645-52.
25. Taylor PN1, Okosieme OE, Dayan CM, Lazarus JH. Therapy of endocrine disease: Impact of iodine supplementation in mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency: systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 Nov 22;170(1):R1-R15. doi: 10.1530/EJE-13-0651. Print 2014 Jan.

26. Devi PB, Vijayabharathi R, Sathyabama S, Malleshi NG, Priyadarisini VB. Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) polyphenols and dietary fiber: a review. J Food Sci Technol. 2014 Jun;51(6):1021-40.

27. Shobana S, Krishnaswamy K, Sudha V, Malleshi NG, Anjana RM, Palaniappan L, Mohan V. Finger millet (Ragi, Eleusine coracana L.): a review of its nutritional properties, processing, and plausible health benefits. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2013;69:1-39.

28. Lestienne I, Besançon P, Caporiccio B, Lullien-Péllerin V, Tréche S. Iron and zinc in vitro availability in pearl millet flours (Pennisetum glaucum) with varying phytate, tannin, and fiber contents. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Apr 20;53(8):3240-7.

29. Lestienne I, Caporiccio B, Besançon P, Rochette I, Trèche S. Relative contribution of phytates, fibers, and tannins to low iron and zinc in vitro solubility in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) flour and grain fractions. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Oct 19;53(21):8342-8.

30 Udayasekhara Rao P, Deosthale YG. In vitro availability of iron and zinc in white and coloured ragi (Eleusine coracana): role of tannin and phytate. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1988;38(1):35-41.

31. Suma PF, Urooj A. Nutrients, antinutrients & bioaccessible mineral content (invitro) of pearl millet as influenced by milling. J Food Sci Technol. 2014 Apr;51(4):756-61.

32. Archana, Sehgal S, Kawatra A. Reduction of polyphenol and phytic acid content of pearl millet grains by malting and blanching. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1999;53(2):93-8.

33. Pattabiraman TN. Trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitors from millets. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1986;199:439-48.

34. Shivaraj B, Pattabiraman TN. Natural plant enzyme inhibitors. Characterization of an unusual alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor from ragi (Eleusine coracana Geartn.). Biochem J. 1981 Jan 1;193(1):29-36.

35. Joshi BN, Sainani MN, Bastawade KB, Deshpande VV, Gupta VS, Ranjekar PK.
Pearl millet cysteine protease inhibitor. Evidence for the presence of two distinct sites responsible for anti-fungal and anti-feedent activities. Eur J Biochem. 1999 Oct;265(2):556-63.

36. Lee ST, Mitchell RB, Wang Z, Heiss C, Gardner DR, Azadi P. Isolation, characterization, and quantification of steroidal saponins in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Mar 25;57(6):2599-604.

37. Patamalai B, Hejtmancik E, Bridges CH, Hill DW, Camp BJ. The isolation and identification of steroidal sapogenins in Kleingrass. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1990 Aug;32(4):314-8.

Remember when Mother said not to play with your food?

Neither do we!

Stay inspired in the kitchen with these Paleo food ideas. Submit your creation to The Paleo Diet Recipe Contest for your chance to win a free copy of The Paleo Diet Cookbook.

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Smoked Salmon Pesto Paleo Pizza | The Paleo Diet

Special thanks and congratulations to Karlie Hindmarsh, The Paleo Diet Recipe Contest Winner

 
We give this Smoked Salmon Pesto Paleo Pizza 3 Ps for a Paleo in the kitchen job well done!

Ingredients

Serves 3-4

Base

  • 1/8 cup flax meal
  • 1/8 cup pumpkin seed meal
  • 1/8 cup sunflower seed meal
  • 3-5 organic free range eggs
  • 1/4 cauliflower

Topping

  • One bunch fresh basil leaves
  • 100g toasted pine nuts
  • 50g activated raw cashew nuts (soak nuts overnight in filtered water to activate)
  • 3 garlic cloves
  • 1/2 cup extra virgin cold pressed olive oil
  • 1/2 cup extra virgin cold pressed olive oil
  • 200g smoked salmon
  • 1 avocado
  • Handful of spinach leaves
  • Handful of activated walnuts (soak nuts overnight to activate)

Directions

1. Combine all dry ingredients with egg and leave in container to soak overnight in the fridge.

2. The following day, roughly chop cauliflower and throw florets into food processor, processing until a rice-like consistency (ie, make cauliflower rice).

3. Combine cauliflower rice with egg/seed mixture, adding an extra egg to make runnier if need be.

4. Spread mixture onto baking paper lined over tray. Bake for 10-15 mins or until lightly browned on top and cooked through.

5. Meanwhile, make pesto by throwing garlic, basil leaves, cashews and pine nuts into food processor. Then gradually add olive oil until it has the consistency of a thick paste. Spread the pesto onto the warm pizza base, then arrange smoked salmon, spinach leaves, avocado slices and activated walnuts on top.



Live Well, Live Longer.
The Paleo Team

Heath Squier | Paleo, Inc.

My whole life, I have eaten a well-rounded diet full of high quality foods… little did I know I was eating the wrong kinds of quality foods! Thank goodness for the Dr. Cordain’s Paleo Diet, which completely transformed my body and my life.

When I started following the Paleo Diet principles in 2011, I was in my early 30s and exercised for more than five hours per day. But no matter how hard I worked in the gym, I simply couldn’t achieve the lean, muscular body I truly wanted.

I thought my lack of results was just luck of the draw, since I had always eaten “healthy” foods.

In fact, in my childhood my mother had been a forward-thinking nutritionist and the founder of a local wellness-oriented bakery, Julian Bakery, the now a thriving, nationwide chain. Yet, even as a young boy, I always felt tired and suffered from a constant case of bursitis (inflammation) in my knees, not to mention horrible allergies, particularly to milk products.

But in 2011, that all changed.

After stumbling across Dr. Loren Cordain’s eating plan I removed all refined sugars, breads, gluten, lactose (dairy products) and grains from my diet. Incredibly, it took only two months to lose 35 pounds – from 220 down to 185, at 6’3.”

When I first embarked on the Paleo lifestyle, I had 14 percent body fat. Within two months of religiously following the plan, I dropped to seven percent body fat. And I felt great! I finally had all-day energy and no longer suffered discomfort after eating.

My results come from following a ketogenic approach¬–kind of a “Paleo Keto” model–using Dr. Cordain’s principles as guidelines. I have found the Paleo Keto approach helps boost my results.

It’s been three years since I first discovered the Paleo Diet. I have easily maintained my weight loss and am in the best shape of my life, all while eating delicious, satisfying foods.

I believe so strongly in Dr. Cordain’s vision that I now create and distribute Paleo-friendly versions of everyday bakery products in our family’s bakeries across the country under the Paleo, Inc. brand. These products enabled me to lose the weight and maintain my results in conjunction with the guidelines I learned from Dr. Cordain.

It’s my honor to share Dr. Cordain’s message with more folks who, like me, try to eat healthfully and exercise, but still can’t get the results they want.

Paleo is the Answer. And I’m living proof.

Heath Squier
Owner of Paleo, Inc. and Julian Bakery, Inc.
San Diego, California

Dietary Protocol for Life | The Paleo Diet

Dear Dr. Cordian,

I had all the symptoms of Crohn’s disease and my life had become a living nightmare (an Iridologist confirmed my suspicions.) I was afraid to leave my home and suffered for seven years. I tried everything I came across on the web, and by some miracle, I heard about the Paleo Diet. It saved my health. My symptoms have abated. In addition, my skin no longer breaks out and my fingernails are in much better shape. I am so very grateful. Thank you for sharing this important information with the public. I refused to take any prescription medication for this condition, and I’m so glad I did not. I plan to continue this dietary protocol for the rest of my life. THANK YOU WITH ALL MY HEART!

Janet

Wild Salmon and Sautéed Spinach | The Paleo Diet

Each year, October 31st seems to mark the start of the junk food season. Most of us have fun childhood memories of dressing up in costume, attending parties, and spending hours Trick-or-Treating in our neighborhoods. Returning home with a bag full of candy and sugary snacks meant an evening spent sampling the hard, soft, or chewy treasures we had collected. Unfortunately, most of us probably went to bed with a tummy ache and awoke within a few days with a sore throat, cold, or flu virus due to the negative impact on our immune systems after overindulging. It occurred to me years ago that the cold and flu season really seems to get ramped up and into high gear beginning around Halloween and continuing well into Spring when the junk food holidays finally end at Easter time.Why not try out a Paleo Halloween this year and see where it can lead?

So, what’s a Paleo parent to do? How do we help our children enjoy the festivities and traditions of our special holidays, while maintaining healthy eating habits? Over the past 10 years or so, there has been more and more awareness regarding these issues. Conscientious parents have tackled this problem in a variety of ways. Some have done away with Halloween altogether, while others have found new and creative ways to celebrate the day and start new, healthy traditions. Fortunately, the internet has become a fantastic place to search for special, healthy treats. Just last week, I found a darling creation making ghosts from ½ banana using small currants or raisins for eyes and mouth. Another site demonstrated making “Jack-o-lanterns” from oranges, carving out the skins to make the face. Check out just a few of the links to help you and your children get started. Be sure to include the kids in the search and make it fun and exciting to plan for your special day.

But, what to do with all that Trick-or-Treat candy? Again, it’s time to get creative and think outside the box. Several approaches to this dilemma should be considered. Some parents allow their children to choose a small amount of candy to enjoy as a special treat over the next few days, throwing the rest in the trash where all the junk belongs. Others, strike a deal with their kids and agree to buy all of the candy from the child. The child is then allowed to spend the money on a toy or other non-food item of their choice. We know of a family who puts on a wonderful, healthy costume party for their children and their friends every year. There is no Trick-or-Treating, just healthy snacks, traditional games like bobbing for apples, and a fun time for all. If you don’t want to throw your own party, many community organizations offer alternatives for kids. As for what to throw in those sacks when the neighborhood goblins come calling?

How about this treat: The Paleo Diet Bar in either Cinnamon Raisin, or Cranberry Almond! This is a special and fun time of year when lasting childhood memories are created. Start your own family traditions and enjoy the celebrations!

All the best,

Lorrie Cordain, M.A.
The Paleo Diet Team

The Paleo Diet

Baked Apple

The aromas of this simple-to-prepare fall treat fills your house with sweetness and will have your kids drooling. Be sure to choose locally grown, organic apples when preparing this sweet treat.

INGREDIENTS

  • 1 large, fresh pie apple
  • 1 medium orange, juiced
  • 1 tbsp raisins
  • ¼ tsp cinnamon
  • Pinch allspice
  • olive oil

DIRECTIONS

1. Preheat oven to 350°F

2. Core the apple

3. Mix orange juice, raisins, cinnamon, and allspice together in small bowl and fill the cavity of the apple

4. Pour remaining liquid over apple

5. Place apple on a lightly greased pan with olive oil

6. Bake 30-40 minutes or until soft

7. A small paring knife should easily puncture the apple skin to cavity center

8. Better get lots, the little goblins will certainly be begging for more!


Roasted Pumpkin Seeds

From jack-o-lanterns to pies, pumpkins have become an American tradition during this time of year. But, what to do with all those seeds after carving your spooky creation? This simple recipe has become a favorite of Paleo dieters everywhere.

4-6 Servings

INGREDIENTS

  • 1 large pumpkin
  • 2 tbsp extra virgin olive oil
  • 1 tbsp paprika
  • 2 tbsp garlic powder
  • 2 tbsp onion powder
  • 1 tsp chili powder, to taste

DIRECTIONS

1. Preheat oven to 350°F

2. Carve pumpkin, remove seeds

3. Thoroughly rinse pumpkin from seeds and pat dry with paper towels

4. Put seeds in a bowl and mix thoroughly with olive oil and spices

5. Spread seeds evenly on non-stick baking pan

6. Bake for 30 minutes, turning seeds every 10 minutes

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